Draft ECMA-402 / October 12, 2017

ECMAScript® 2018 Internationalization API Specification

Contributing to this Specification

This specification is developed on GitHub with the help of the ECMAScript community. There are a number of ways to contribute to the development of this specification:

Refer to the colophon for more information on how this document is created.

Introduction

This specification's source can be found at https://github.com/tc39/ecma402.

The ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification (ECMA-402 5th Edition), provides key language sensitive functionality as a complement to the ECMAScript 2018 Language Specification (ECMA-262 9th Edition or successor). Its functionality has been selected from that of well-established internationalization APIs such as those of the Internationalization Components for Unicode (ICU) library, of the .NET framework, or of the Java platform.

The 1st Edition API was developed by an ad-hoc group established by Ecma TC39 in September 2010 based on a proposal by Nebojša Ćirić and Jungshik Shin.

The 2nd Edition API was adopted by the General Assembly of June 2015, as a complement to the ECMAScript 6th Edition.

The 3rd Edition API was the first edition released under Ecma TC39's new yearly release cadence and open development process. A plain-text source document was built from the ECMA-402 source document to serve as the base for further development entirely on GitHub. Over the year of this standard's development, dozens of pull requests and issues were filed representing several of bug fixes, editorial fixes and other improvements. Additionally, numerous software tools were developed to aid in this effort including Ecmarkup, Ecmarkdown, and Grammarkdown.

Dozens of individuals representing many organizations have made very significant contributions within Ecma TC39 to the development of this edition and to the prior editions. In addition, a vibrant community has emerged supporting TC39's ECMAScript efforts. This community has reviewed numerous drafts, filed dozens of bug reports, performed implementation experiments, contributed test suites, and educated the world-wide developer community about ECMAScript Internationalization. Unfortunately, it is impossible to identify and acknowledge every person and organization who has contributed to this effort.

Norbert Lindenberg
ECMA-402, 1st Edition Project Editor

Rick Waldron
ECMA-402, 2nd Edition Project Editor

Caridy Patiño
ECMA-402, 3rd and 4th Editions Project Editor

1Scope

This Standard defines the application programming interface for ECMAScript objects that support programs that need to adapt to the linguistic and cultural conventions used by different human languages and countries.

2Conformance

A conforming implementation of the ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification must conform to the ECMAScript 2018 Language Specification (ECMA-262 9th Edition, or successor), and must provide and support all the objects, properties, functions, and program semantics described in this specification.

A conforming implementation of the ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification is permitted to provide additional objects, properties, and functions beyond those described in this specification. In particular, a conforming implementation of the ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification is permitted to provide properties not described in this specification, and values for those properties, for objects that are described in this specification. A conforming implementation is not permitted to add optional arguments to the functions defined in this specification.

A conforming implementation is permitted to accept additional values, and then have implementation-defined behaviour instead of throwing a RangeError, for the following properties of options arguments:

  • The options property localeMatcher in all constructors and supportedLocalesOf methods.
  • The options properties usage and sensitivity in the Collator constructor.
  • The options properties style and currencyDisplay in the NumberFormat constructor.
  • The options properties minimumIntegerDigits, minimumFractionDigits, maximumFractionDigits, minimumSignificantDigits, and maximumSignificantDigits in the NumberFormat constructor, provided that the additional values are interpreted as integer values higher than the specified limits.
  • The options properties listed in Table 4 in the DateTimeFormat constructor.
  • The options property formatMatcher in the DateTimeFormat constructor.

3Normative References

The following referenced documents are required for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ECMAScript 2018 Language Specification (ECMA-262 9th Edition, or successor).
https://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm

Note
Throughout this document, the phrase "ES2018, x" (where x is a sequence of numbers separated by periods) may be used as shorthand for "ECMAScript 2018 Language Specification (ECMA-262 9th Edition, sub clause x)".

4Overview

This section contains a non-normative overview of the ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification.

4.1Internationalization, Localization, and Globalization

Internationalization of software means designing it such that it supports or can be easily adapted to support the needs of users speaking different languages and having different cultural expectations, and enables worldwide communication between them. Localization then is the actual adaptation to a specific language and culture. Globalization of software is commonly understood to be the combination of internationalization and localization. Globalization starts at the lowest level by using a text representation that supports all languages in the world, and using standard identifiers to identify languages, countries, time zones, and other relevant parameters. It continues with using a user interface language and data presentation that the user understands, and finally often requires product-specific adaptations to the user’s language, culture, and environment.

The ECMAScript 2018 Language Specification lays the foundation by using Unicode for text representation and by providing a few language-sensitive functions, but gives applications little control over the behaviour of these functions. The ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification builds on this by providing a set of customizable language-sensitive functionality. The API is useful even for applications that themselves are not internationalized, as even applications targeting only one language and one region need to properly support that one language and region. However, the API also enables applications that support multiple languages and regions, even concurrently, as may be needed in server environments.

4.2API Overview

The ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification is designed to complement the ECMAScript 2018 Language Specification by providing key language-sensitive functionality. The API can be added to an implementation of the ECMAScript 2018 Language Specification (ECMA-262 9th Edition, or successor).

The ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification provides several key pieces of language-sensitive functionality that are required in most applications: String comparison (collation), number formatting, date and time formatting, and case conversion. While the ECMAScript 2018 Language Specification provides functions for this basic functionality (on Array.prototype: toLocaleString; on String.prototype: localeCompare, toLocaleLowerCase, toLocaleUpperCase; on Number.prototype: toLocaleString; on Date.prototype: toLocaleString, toLocaleDateString, and toLocaleTimeString), it leaves the actual behaviour of these functions largely up to implementations to define. The ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification provides additional functionality, control over the language and over details of the behaviour to be used, and a more complete specification of required functionality.

Applications can use the API in two ways:

  1. Directly, by using the constructors Intl.Collator, Intl.NumberFormat, or Intl.DateTimeFormat to construct an object, specifying a list of preferred languages and options to configure the behaviour of the resulting object. The object then provides a main function (compare or format), which can be called repeatedly. It also provides a resolvedOptions function, which the application can use to find out the exact configuration of the object.
  2. Indirectly, by using the functions of the ECMAScript 2018 Language Specification mentioned above. The collation and formatting functions are respecified in this specification to accept the same arguments as the Collator, NumberFormat, and DateTimeFormat constructors and produce the same results as their compare or format methods. The case conversion functions are respecified to accept a list of preferred languages.

The Intl object is used to package all functionality defined in the ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification to avoid name collisions.

4.3Implementation Dependencies

Due to the nature of internationalization, the API specification has to leave several details implementation dependent:

  • The set of locales that an implementation supports with adequate localizations: Linguists estimate the number of human languages to around 6000, and the more widely spoken ones have variations based on regions or other parameters. Even large locale data collections, such as the Common Locale Data Repository, cover only a subset of this large set. Implementations targeting resource-constrained devices may have to further reduce the subset.
  • The exact form of localizations such as format patterns: In many cases locale-dependent conventions are not standardized, so different forms may exist side by side, or they vary over time. Different internationalization libraries may have implemented different forms, without any of them being actually wrong. In order to allow this API to be implemented on top of existing libraries, such variations have to be permitted.
  • Subsets of Unicode: Some operations, such as collation, operate on strings that can include characters from the entire Unicode character set. However, both the Unicode standard and the ECMAScript standard allow implementations to limit their functionality to subsets of the Unicode character set. In addition, locale conventions typically don’t specify the desired behaviour for the entire Unicode character set, but only for those characters that are relevant for the locale. While the Unicode Collation Algorithm combines a default collation order for the entire Unicode character set with the ability to tailor for local conventions, subsets and tailorings still result in differences in behaviour.

4.3.1Compatibility across implementations

ECMA 402 describes the schema of the data used by its functions. The data contained inside is implementation-dependent, and expected to change over time and vary between implementations. The variation is visible by programmers, and it is possible to construct programs which will depend on a particular output. However, this specification attempts to describe reasonable constraints which will allow well-written programs to function across implementations. Implementations are encouraged to continue their efforts to harmonize linguistic data.

5Notational Conventions

This standard uses a subset of the notational conventions of the ECMAScript 2018 Language Specification (ECMA-262 9th Edition), as ES2018:

  • Object Internal Methods and Internal Slots, as described in ES2018, 6.1.7.2.
  • Algorithm conventions, including the use of abstract operations, as described in ES2018, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3.
  • Internal Slots, as described in ES2018, 9.1.
  • The List and Record Specification Type, as described in ES2018, 6.2.1.
Note
As described in the ECMAScript Language Specification, algorithms are used to precisely specify the required semantics of ECMAScript constructs, but are not intended to imply the use of any specific implementation technique. Internal slots are used to define the semantics of object values, but are not part of the API. They are defined purely for expository purposes. An implementation of the API must behave as if it produced and operated upon internal slots in the manner described here.

As an extension to the Record Specification Type, the notation "[[<name>]]" denotes a field whose name is given by the variable name, which must have a String value. For example, if a variable s has the value "a", then [[<s>]] denotes the field [[a]].

For ECMAScript objects, this standard may use variable-named internal slots: The notation "[[<name>]]" denotes an internal slot whose name is given by the variable name, which must have a String value. For example, if a variable s has the value "a", then [[<s>]] denotes the [[a]] internal slot.

This specification uses blocks demarcated as Normative Optional to denote the sense of Annex B in ECMA 262. That is, normative optional sections are required when the ECMAScript host is a web browser. The content of the section is normative but optional if the ECMAScript host is not a web browser.

5.1Well-Known Intrinsic Objects

The following table extends the Well-Known Intrinsic Objects table defined in ES2018, 6.1.7.4.

Table 1: Well-known Intrinsic Objects (Extensions)
Intrinsic Name Global Name ECMAScript Language Association
%Date_now% Date.now The initial value of the now data property of the intrinsic %Date% (ES2018, 20.3.3.1)
%Intl% Intl The Intl object (8).
%Collator% Intl.Collator The Intl.Collator constructor (10.1)
%CollatorPrototype% Intl.Collator.prototype The initial value of the prototype data property of the intrinsic %Collator% (10.2.1).
%NumberFormat% Intl.NumberFormat The Intl.NumberFormat constructor (11.2)
%NumberFormatPrototype% Intl.NumberFormat.prototype The initial value of the prototype data property of the intrinsic %NumberFormat% (11.3.1).
%DateTimeFormat% Intl.DateTimeFormat The Intl.DateTimeFormat constructor (12.2).
%DateTimeFormatPrototype% Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype The initial value of the prototype data property of the intrinsic %DateTimeFormat% (12.3.1).
%StringProto_indexOf% String.prototype.indexOf The initial value of the indexOf data property of the intrinsic %StringPrototype% (ES2018, 21.1.3.8)

6Identification of Locales, Currencies, and Time Zones

This clause describes the String values used in the ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification to identify locales, currencies, and time zones.

6.1Case Sensitivity and Case Mapping

The String values used to identify locales, currencies, and time zones are interpreted in a case-insensitive manner, treating the Unicode Basic Latin characters "A" to "Z" (U+0041 to U+005A) as equivalent to the corresponding Basic Latin characters "a" to "z" (U+0061 to U+007A). No other case folding equivalences are applied. When mapping to upper case, a mapping shall be used that maps characters in the range "a" to "z" (U+0061 to U+007A) to the corresponding characters in the range "A" to "Z" (U+0041 to U+005A) and maps no other characters to the latter range.

EXAMPLES "ß" (U+00DF) must not match or be mapped to "SS" (U+0053, U+0053). "ı" (U+0131) must not match or be mapped to "I" (U+0049).

6.2Language Tags

The ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification identifies locales using language tags as defined by IETF BCP 47 (RFCs 5646 and 4647 or their successors), which may include extensions such as those registered through RFC 6067. Their canonical form is specified in RFC 5646 section 4.5 or its successor.

BCP 47 language tags that meet those validity criteria of RFC 5646 section 2.2.9 that can be verified without reference to the IANA Language Subtag Registry are considered structurally valid. All structurally valid language tags are valid for use with the APIs defined by this standard. However, the set of locales and thus language tags that an implementation supports with adequate localizations is implementation dependent. The constructors Collator, NumberFormat, and DateTimeFormat map the language tags used in requests to locales supported by their respective implementations.

6.2.1Unicode Locale Extension Sequences

This standard uses the term "Unicode locale extension sequence" for any substring of a language tag that is not part of a private use subtag sequence, starts with a separator "-" and the singleton "u", and includes the maximum sequence of following non-singleton subtags and their preceding "-" separators.

6.2.2IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag ( locale )

The IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag abstract operation verifies that the locale argument (which must be a String value)

  • represents a well-formed BCP 47 language tag as specified in RFC 5646 section 2.1, or successor,
  • does not include duplicate variant subtags, and
  • does not include duplicate singleton subtags.

The abstract operation returns true if locale can be generated from the ABNF grammar in section 2.1 of the RFC, starting with Language-Tag, and does not contain duplicate variant or singleton subtags (other than as a private use subtag). It returns false otherwise. Terminal value characters in the grammar are interpreted as the Unicode equivalents of the ASCII octet values given.

6.2.3CanonicalizeLanguageTag ( locale )

The CanonicalizeLanguageTag abstract operation returns the canonical and case-regularized form of the locale argument (which must be a String value that is a structurally valid BCP 47 language tag as verified by the IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag abstract operation). A conforming implementation shall take the steps specified in RFC 5646 section 4.5, or successor, to bring the language tag into canonical form, and to regularize the case of the subtags. Furthermore, a conforming implementation shall not take the steps to bring a language tag into "extlang form", nor shall it reorder variant subtags.

The specifications for extensions to BCP 47 language tags, such as RFC 6067, may include canonicalization rules for the extension subtag sequences they define that go beyond the canonicalization rules of RFC 5646 section 4.5. Implementations are allowed, but not required, to apply these additional rules.

6.2.4DefaultLocale ()

The DefaultLocale abstract operation returns a String value representing the structurally valid (6.2.2) and canonicalized (6.2.3) BCP 47 language tag for the host environment’s current locale.

6.3Currency Codes

The ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification identifies currencies using 3-letter currency codes as defined by ISO 4217. Their canonical form is upper case.

All well-formed 3-letter ISO 4217 currency codes are allowed. However, the set of combinations of currency code and language tag for which localized currency symbols are available is implementation dependent. Where a localized currency symbol is not available, the ISO 4217 currency code is used for formatting.

6.3.1IsWellFormedCurrencyCode ( currency )

The IsWellFormedCurrencyCode abstract operation verifies that the currency argument (which must be a String value) represents a well-formed 3-letter ISO currency code. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let normalized be the result of mapping currency to upper case as described in 6.1.
  2. If the number of elements in normalized is not 3, return false.
  3. If normalized contains any character that is not in the range "A" to "Z" (U+0041 to U+005A), return false.
  4. Return true.

6.4Time Zone Names

The ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification identifies time zones using the Zone and Link names of the IANA Time Zone Database. Their canonical form is the corresponding Zone name in the casing used in the IANA Time Zone Database.

All registered Zone and Link names are allowed. Implementations must recognize all such names, and use best available current and historical information about their offsets from UTC and their daylight saving time rules in calculations. However, the set of combinations of time zone name and language tag for which localized time zone names are available is implementation dependent.

6.4.1IsValidTimeZoneName ( timeZone )

The IsValidTimeZoneName abstract operation verifies that the timeZone argument (which must be a String value) represents a valid Zone or Link name of the IANA Time Zone Database.

The abstract operation returns true if timeZone, converted to upper case as described in 6.1, is equal to one of the Zone or Link names of the IANA Time Zone Database, converted to upper case as described in 6.1. It returns false otherwise.

6.4.2CanonicalizeTimeZoneName

The CanonicalizeTimeZoneName abstract operation returns the canonical and case-regularized form of the timeZone argument (which must be a String value that is a valid time zone name as verified by the IsValidTimeZoneName abstract operation). The following steps are taken:

  1. Let ianaTimeZone be the Zone or Link name of the IANA Time Zone Database such that timeZone, converted to upper case as described in 6.1, is equal to ianaTimeZone, converted to upper case as described in 6.1.
  2. If ianaTimeZone is a Link name, let ianaTimeZone be the corresponding Zone name as specified in the "backward" file of the IANA Time Zone Database.
  3. If ianaTimeZone is "Etc/UTC" or "Etc/GMT", return "UTC".
  4. Return ianaTimeZone.

The Intl.DateTimeFormat constructor allows this time zone name; if the time zone is not specified, the host environment’s current time zone is used. Implementations shall support UTC and the host environment’s current time zone (if different from UTC) in formatting.

6.4.3DefaultTimeZone ()

The DefaultTimeZone abstract operation returns a String value representing the valid (6.4.1) and canonicalized (6.4.2) time zone name for the host environment’s current time zone.

7Requirements for Standard Built-in ECMAScript Objects

Unless specified otherwise in this document, the objects, functions, and constructors described in this standard are subject to the generic requirements and restrictions specified for standard built-in ECMAScript objects in the ECMAScript 2018 Language Specification, 9th edition, clause 17, or successor.

8The Intl Object

The Intl object is the %Intl% intrinsic object and the initial value of the Intl property of the global object. The Intl object is a single ordinary object.

The value of the [[Prototype]] internal slot of the Intl object is the intrinsic object %ObjectPrototype%.

The Intl object is not a function object. It does not have a [[Construct]] internal method; it is not possible to use the Intl object as a constructor with the new operator. The Intl object does not have a [[Call]] internal method; it is not possible to invoke the Intl object as a function.

The Intl object has an internal slot, [[FallbackSymbol]], which is a new %Symbol% in the current realm with the [[Description]] "IntlLegacyConstructedSymbol"

8.1Constructor Properties of the Intl Object

8.1.1Intl.Collator (...)

See 10.

8.1.2Intl.NumberFormat (...)

See 11.

8.1.3Intl.DateTimeFormat (...)

See 12.

Note
In ECMA 402 v1, Intl constructors supported a mode of operation where calling them with an existing object as a receiver would transform the receiver into the relevant Intl instance with all internal slots. In ECMA 402 v2, this capability was removed, to avoid adding internal slots on existing objects. In ECMA 402 v3, the capability was re-added as "normative optional" in a mode which chains the underlying Intl instance on any object, when the constructor is called. See Issue 57 for details.

8.2Function Properties of the Intl Object

8.2.1Intl.getCanonicalLocales ( locales )

When the getCanonicalLocales method is called with argument locales, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let ll be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  2. Return CreateArrayFromList(ll).

9Locale and Parameter Negotiation

The constructors for the objects providing locale sensitive services, Collator, NumberFormat, and DateTimeFormat, use a common pattern to negotiate the requests represented by the locales and options arguments against the actual capabilities of their implementations. The common behaviour is described here in terms of internal slots describing the capabilities and of abstract operations using these internal slots.

9.1Internal slots of Service Constructors

The constructors Intl.Collator, Intl.NumberFormat, and Intl.DateTimeFormat have the following internal slots:

  • [[AvailableLocales]] is a List that contains structurally valid (6.2.2) and canonicalized (6.2.3) BCP 47 language tags identifying the locales for which the implementation provides the functionality of the constructed objects. Language tags on the list must not have a Unicode locale extension sequence. The list must include the value returned by the DefaultLocale abstract operation (6.2.4), and must not include duplicates. Implementations must include in [[AvailableLocales]] locales that can serve as fallbacks in the algorithm used to resolve locales (see 9.2.6). For example, implementations that provide a "de-DE" locale must include a "de" locale that can serve as a fallback for requests such as "de-AT" and "de-CH". For locales that in current usage would include a script subtag (such as Chinese locales), old-style language tags without script subtags must be included such that, for example, requests for "zh-TW" and "zh-HK" lead to output in traditional Chinese rather than the default simplified Chinese. The ordering of the locales within [[AvailableLocales]] is irrelevant.
  • [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] is a List of keys of the language tag extensions defined in Unicode Technical Standard 35 that are relevant for the functionality of the constructed objects.
  • [[SortLocaleData]] and [[SearchLocaleData]] (for Intl.Collator) and [[LocaleData]] (for Intl.NumberFormat and Intl.DateTimeFormat) are records that have fields for each locale contained in [[AvailableLocales]]. The value of each of these fields must be a record that has fields for each key contained in [[RelevantExtensionKeys]]. The value of each of these fields must be a non-empty list of those values defined in Unicode Technical Standard 35 for the given key that are supported by the implementation for the given locale, with the first element providing the default value.

EXAMPLE An implementation of DateTimeFormat might include the language tag "th" in its [[AvailableLocales]] internal slot, and must (according to 12.3.3) include the key "ca" in its [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot. For Thai, the "buddhist" calendar is usually the default, but an implementation might also support the calendars "gregory", "chinese", and "islamicc" for the locale "th". The [[LocaleData]] internal slot would therefore at least include {[[th]]: {[[ca]]: «"buddhist", "gregory", "chinese", "islamicc"»}}.

9.2Abstract Operations

Where the following abstract operations take an availableLocales argument, it must be an [[AvailableLocales]] List as specified in 9.1.

9.2.1CanonicalizeLocaleList ( locales )

The abstract operation CanonicalizeLocaleList takes the following steps:

  1. If locales is undefined, then
    1. Return a new empty List.
  2. Let seen be a new empty List.
  3. If Type(locales) is String, then
    1. Let O be CreateArrayFromListlocales »).
  4. Else,
    1. Let O be ? ToObject(locales).
  5. Let len be ? ToLength(? Get(O, "length")).
  6. Let k be 0.
  7. Repeat, while k < len
    1. Let Pk be ToString(k).
    2. Let kPresent be ? HasProperty(O, Pk).
    3. If kPresent is true, then
      1. Let kValue be ? Get(O, Pk).
      2. If Type(kValue) is not String or Object, throw a TypeError exception.
      3. Let tag be ? ToString(kValue).
      4. If IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag(tag) is false, throw a RangeError exception.
      5. Let canonicalizedTag be CanonicalizeLanguageTag(tag).
      6. If canonicalizedTag is not an element of seen, append canonicalizedTag as the last element of seen.
    4. Increase k by 1.
  8. Return seen.
Note 1
Non-normative summary: The abstract operation interprets the locales argument as an array and copies its elements into a List, validating the elements as structurally valid language tags and canonicalizing them, and omitting duplicates.
Note 2
Requiring kValue to be a String or Object means that the Number value NaN will not be interpreted as the language tag "nan", which stands for Min Nan Chinese.

9.2.2BestAvailableLocale ( availableLocales, locale )

The BestAvailableLocale abstract operation compares the provided argument locale, which must be a String value with a structurally valid and canonicalized BCP 47 language tag, against the locales in availableLocales and returns either the longest non-empty prefix of locale that is an element of availableLocales, or undefined if there is no such element. It uses the fallback mechanism of RFC 4647, section 3.4. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let candidate be locale.
  2. Repeat
    1. If availableLocales contains an element equal to candidate, return candidate.
    2. Let pos be the character index of the last occurrence of "-" (U+002D) within candidate. If that character does not occur, return undefined.
    3. If pos ≥ 2 and the character "-" occurs at index pos-2 of candidate, decrease pos by 2.
    4. Let candidate be the substring of candidate from position 0, inclusive, to position pos, exclusive.

9.2.3LookupMatcher ( availableLocales, requestedLocales )

The LookupMatcher abstract operation compares requestedLocales, which must be a List as returned by CanonicalizeLocaleList, against the locales in availableLocales and determines the best available language to meet the request. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let result be a new Record.
  2. Repeat for each element locale of availableLocale in List order,
    1. Let noExtensionsLocale be the String value that is locale with all Unicode locale extension sequences removed.
    2. Let availableLocale be BestAvailableLocale(availableLocales, noExtensionsLocale).
    3. If availableLocale is not undefined, then
      1. Set result.[[locale]] to availableLocale.
      2. If locale and noExtensionsLocale are not the same String value, then
        1. Let extension be the String value consisting of the first substring of locale that is a Unicode locale extension sequence.
        2. Set result.[[extension]] to extension.
      3. Return result.
  3. Let defLocale be DefaultLocale().
  4. Set result.[[locale]] to defLocale.
  5. Return result.
Note
The algorithm is based on the Lookup algorithm described in RFC 4647 section 3.4, but options specified through Unicode locale extension sequences are ignored in the lookup. Information about such subsequences is returned separately. The abstract operation returns a record with a [[locale]] field, whose value is the language tag of the selected locale, which must be an element of availableLocales. If the language tag of the request locale that led to the selected locale contained a Unicode locale extension sequence, then the returned record also contains an [[extension]] field whose value is the first Unicode locale extension sequence within the request locale language tag.

9.2.4BestFitMatcher ( availableLocales, requestedLocales )

The BestFitMatcher abstract operation compares requestedLocales, which must be a List as returned by CanonicalizeLocaleList, against the locales in availableLocales and determines the best available language to meet the request. The algorithm is implementation dependent, but should produce results that a typical user of the requested locales would perceive as at least as good as those produced by the LookupMatcher abstract operation. Options specified through Unicode locale extension sequences must be ignored by the algorithm. Information about such subsequences is returned separately. The abstract operation returns a record with a [[locale]] field, whose value is the language tag of the selected locale, which must be an element of availableLocales. If the language tag of the request locale that led to the selected locale contained a Unicode locale extension sequence, then the returned record also contains an [[extension]] field whose value is the first Unicode locale extension sequence within the request locale language tag.

9.2.5UnicodeExtensionValue ( extension, key )

The abstract operation UnicodeExtensionValue is called with extension, which must be a Unicode locale extension sequence, and String key. This operation returns the type subtags for key by performing the following steps:

  1. Assert: The number of elements in key is 2.
  2. Let size be the number of elements in extension.
  3. Let searchValue be the concatenation of "-", key, and "-".
  4. Let pos be Call(%StringProto_indexOf%, extension, « searchValue »).
  5. If pos ≠ -1, then
    1. Let start be pos + 4.
    2. Let end be start.
    3. Let k be start.
    4. Let done be false.
    5. Repeat, while done is false
      1. Let e be Call(%StringProto_indexOf%, extension, « "-", k »).
      2. If e = -1, let len be size - k; else let len be e - k.
      3. If len = 2, then
        1. Let done be true.
      4. Else if e = -1, then
        1. Let end be size.
        2. Let done be true.
      5. Else,
        1. Let end be e.
        2. Let k be e + 1.
    6. Return the String value equal to the substring of extension consisting of the code units at indices start (inclusive) through end (exclusive).
  6. Let searchValue be the concatenation of "-" and key.
  7. Let pos be Call(%StringProto_indexOf%, extension, « searchValue »).
  8. If pos ≠ -1 and pos + 3 = size, then
    1. Return the empty String.
  9. Return undefined.
Note
Non-normative summary: UnicodeExtensionValue returns the type subtags of the first keyword for a given key. For example, UnicodeExtensionValue("u-ca-ethiopic-amete-alem-ca-ethioaa", "ca") returns "ethiopic-amete-alem". If the keyword for key has no type subtags, UnicodeExtensionValue returns the empty String. If extension contains no keyword for key, undefined is returned.

9.2.6ResolveLocale ( availableLocales, requestedLocales, options, relevantExtensionKeys, localeData )

The ResolveLocale abstract operation compares a BCP 47 language priority list requestedLocales against the locales in availableLocales and determines the best available language to meet the request. availableLocales, requestedLocales, and relevantExtensionKeys must be provided as List values, options and localeData as Records.

The following steps are taken:

  1. Let matcher be options.[[localeMatcher]].
  2. If matcher is "lookup", then
    1. Let r be LookupMatcher(availableLocales, requestedLocales).
  3. Else,
    1. Let r be BestFitMatcher(availableLocales, requestedLocales).
  4. Let foundLocale be r.[[locale]].
  5. Let result be a new Record.
  6. Set result.[[dataLocale]] to foundLocale.
  7. Let supportedExtension be "-u".
  8. Repeat for each element key of relevantExtensionKeys in List order,
    1. Let foundLocaleData be localeData.[[<foundLocale>]].
    2. Assert: Type(foundLocaleData) is Record.
    3. Let keyLocaleData be foundLocaleData.[[<key>]].
    4. Assert: Type(keyLocaleData) is List.
    5. Let value be keyLocaleData[0].
    6. Assert: Type(value) is either String or Null.
    7. Let supportedExtensionAddition be "".
    8. If r has an [[extension]] field, then
      1. Let requestedValue be UnicodeExtensionValue(r.[[extension]], key).
      2. If requestedValue is not undefined, then
        1. If requestedValue is not the empty String, then
          1. If keyLocaleData contains requestedValue, then
            1. Let value be requestedValue.
            2. Let supportedExtensionAddition be the concatenation of "-", key, "-", and value.
        2. Else if keyLocaleData contains "true", then
          1. Let value be "true".
    9. If options has a field [[<key>]], then
      1. Let optionsValue be options.[[<key>]].
      2. Assert: Type(optionsValue) is either String or Undefined.
      3. If keyLocaleData contains optionsValue, then
        1. If SameValue(optionsValue, value) is false, then
          1. Let value be optionsValue.
          2. Let supportedExtensionAddition be "".
    10. Set result.[[<key>]] to value.
    11. Append supportedExtensionAddition to supportedExtension.
  9. If the number of elements in supportedExtension is greater than 2, then
    1. Let privateIndex be Call(%StringProto_indexOf%, foundLocale, « "-x-" »).
    2. If privateIndex = -1, then
      1. Let foundLocale be the concatenation of foundLocale and supportedExtension.
    3. Else,
      1. Let preExtension be the substring of foundLocale from position 0, inclusive, to position privateIndex, exclusive.
      2. Let postExtension be the substring of foundLocale from position privateIndex to the end of the string.
      3. Let foundLocale be the concatenation of preExtension, supportedExtension, and postExtension.
    4. Assert: IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag(foundLocale) is true.
    5. Let foundLocale be CanonicalizeLanguageTag(foundLocale).
  10. Set result.[[locale]] to foundLocale.
  11. Return result.
Note
Non-normative summary: Two algorithms are available to match the locales: the Lookup algorithm described in RFC 4647 section 3.4, and an implementation dependent best-fit algorithm. Independent of the locale matching algorithm, options specified through Unicode locale extension sequences are negotiated separately, taking the caller’s relevant extension keys and locale data as well as client-provided options into consideration. The abstract operation returns a record with a [[locale]] field whose value is the language tag of the selected locale, and fields for each key in relevantExtensionKeys providing the selected value for that key.

9.2.7LookupSupportedLocales ( availableLocales, requestedLocales )

The LookupSupportedLocales abstract operation returns the subset of the provided BCP 47 language priority list requestedLocales for which availableLocales has a matching locale when using the BCP 47 Lookup algorithm. Locales appear in the same order in the returned list as in requestedLocales. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let subset be a new empty List.
  2. Repeat for each element locale of requestedLocales in List order,
    1. Let noExtensionsLocale be the String value that is locale with all Unicode locale extension sequences removed.
    2. Let availableLocale be BestAvailableLocale(availableLocales, noExtensionsLocale).
    3. If availableLocale is not undefined, append locale to the end of subset.
  3. Return subset.

9.2.8BestFitSupportedLocales ( availableLocales, requestedLocales )

The BestFitSupportedLocales abstract operation returns the subset of the provided BCP 47 language priority list requestedLocales for which availableLocales has a matching locale when using the Best Fit Matcher algorithm. Locales appear in the same order in the returned list as in requestedLocales. The steps taken are implementation dependent.

9.2.9SupportedLocales ( availableLocales, requestedLocales, options )

The SupportedLocales abstract operation returns the subset of the provided BCP 47 language priority list requestedLocales for which availableLocales has a matching locale. Two algorithms are available to match the locales: the Lookup algorithm described in RFC 4647 section 3.4, and an implementation dependent best-fit algorithm. Locales appear in the same order in the returned list as in requestedLocales. The following steps are taken:

  1. If options is not undefined, then
    1. Let options be ? ToObject(options).
    2. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", "string", « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  2. Else, let matcher be "best fit".
  3. If matcher is "best fit",
    1. Let supportedLocales be BestFitSupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales).
  4. Else,
    1. Let supportedLocales be LookupSupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales).
  5. Let subset be CreateArrayFromList(supportedLocales).
  6. Let keys be subset.[[OwnPropertyKeys]]().
  7. Repeat for each element P of keys in List order,
    1. Let desc be PropertyDescriptor { [[Configurable]]: false, [[Writable]]: false }.
    2. Perform ! DefinePropertyOrThrow(subset, P, desc).
  8. Return subset.

9.2.10GetOption ( options, property, type, values, fallback )

The abstract operation GetOption extracts the value of the property named property from the provided options object, converts it to the required type, checks whether it is one of a List of allowed values, and fills in a fallback value if necessary.

  1. Let value be ? Get(options, property).
  2. If value is not undefined, then
    1. Assert: type is "boolean" or "string".
    2. If type is "boolean", then
      1. Let value be ToBoolean(value).
    3. If type is "string", then
      1. Let value be ? ToString(value).
    4. If values is not undefined, then
      1. If values does not contain an element equal to value, throw a RangeError exception.
    5. Return value.
  3. Else, return fallback.

9.2.11DefaultNumberOption ( value, minimum, maximum, fallback )

The abstract operation DefaultNumberOption converts value to a Number value, checks whether it is in the allowed range, and fills in a fallback value if necessary.

  1. If value is not undefined, then
    1. Let value be ? ToNumber(value).
    2. If value is NaN or less than minimum or greater than maximum, throw a RangeError exception.
    3. Return floor(value).
  2. Else, return fallback.

9.2.12GetNumberOption ( options, property, minimum, maximum, fallback )

The abstract operation GetNumberOption extracts the value of the property named property from the provided options object, converts it to a Number value, checks whether it is in the allowed range, and fills in a fallback value if necessary.

  1. Let value be ? Get(options, property).
  2. Return ? DefaultNumberOption(value, minimum, maximum, fallback).

10Collator Objects

10.1The Intl.Collator Constructor

The Intl.Collator constructor is the %Collator% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object. Behaviour common to all service constructor properties of the Intl object is specified in 9.1.

10.1.1InitializeCollator ( collator, locales, options )

The abstract operation InitializeCollator accepts the arguments collator (which must be an object), locales, and options. It initializes collator as a Collator object.

Several steps in the algorithm use values from the following table, which associates Unicode locale extension keys, internal slots, property names, types, and allowable values:

Table 2: Collator options settable through extension keys, internal slots and options properties
Key Internal Slot Property Type Values
kn [[Numeric]] "numeric" "boolean"
kf [[CaseFirst]] "caseFirst" "string" "upper", "lower", "false"

The following steps are taken:

  1. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  2. If options is undefined, then
    1. Let options be ObjectCreate(null).
  3. Else,
    1. Let options be ? ToObject(options).
  4. Let u be ? GetOption(options, "usage", "string", « "sort", "search" », "sort").
  5. Set collator.[[Usage]] to u.
  6. If u is "sort", then
    1. Let localeData be %Collator%.[[SortLocaleData]].
  7. Else,
    1. Let localeData be %Collator%.[[SearchLocaleData]].
  8. Let opt be a new Record.
  9. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", "string", « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  10. Set opt.[[localeMatcher]] to matcher.
  11. For each row in Table 2, except the header row, do:
    1. Let key be the name given in the Key column of the row.
    2. Let prop be the name given in the Property column of the row.
    3. Let type be the string given in the Type column of the row.
    4. Let list be a List containing the Strings given in the Values column of the row, or undefined if no strings are given.
    5. Let value be ? GetOption(options, prop, type, list, undefined).
    6. If the string given in the Type column of the row is "boolean" and value is not undefined, then
      1. Let value be ! ToString(value).
    7. Set opt.[[<key>]] to value.
  12. Let relevantExtensionKeys be %Collator%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]].
  13. Let r be ResolveLocale(%Collator%.[[AvailableLocales]], requestedLocales, opt, relevantExtensionKeys, localeData).
  14. Set collator.[[Locale]] to r.[[locale]].
  15. Repeat for each element key of relevantExtensionKeys in List order,
    1. If key is "co", then
      1. Let value be r.[[co]].
      2. If value is null, let value be "default".
      3. Set collator.[[Collation]] to value.
    2. Else use the row of Table 2 that contains key in the Key column:
      1. Let value be r.[[<key>]].
      2. If the name given in the Type column of the row is "boolean", let value be SameValue(value, "true").
      3. Set collator's internal slot whose name is the Internal Slot column of the row to value.
  16. Let s be ? GetOption(options, "sensitivity", "string", « "base", "accent", "case", "variant" », undefined).
  17. If s is undefined, then
    1. If u is "sort", then
      1. Let s be "variant".
    2. Else,
      1. Let dataLocale be r.[[dataLocale]].
      2. Let dataLocaleData be localeData.[[<dataLocale>]].
      3. Let s be dataLocaleData.[[sensitivity]].
  18. Set collator.[[Sensitivity]] to s.
  19. Let ip be ? GetOption(options, "ignorePunctuation", "boolean", undefined, false).
  20. Set collator.[[IgnorePunctuation]] to ip.
  21. Return collator.

10.1.2Intl.Collator ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

When the Intl.Collator function is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, let newTarget be the active function object, else let newTarget be NewTarget.
  2. Let internalSlotsList be « [[InitializedCollator]], [[Locale]], [[Usage]], [[Sensitivity]], [[IgnorePunctuation]], [[Collation]], [[BoundCompare]] ».
  3. If %Collator%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]] contains "kn", then
    1. Append [[Numeric]] as the last element of internalSlotsList.
  4. If %Collator%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]] contains "kf", then
    1. Append [[CaseFirst]] as the last element of internalSlotsList.
  5. Let collator be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(newTarget, "%CollatorPrototype%", internalSlotsList).
  6. Return ? InitializeCollator(collator, locales, options).

10.2Properties of the Intl.Collator Constructor

The Intl.Collator constructor has the following properties:

10.2.1Intl.Collator.prototype

The value of Intl.Collator.prototype is %CollatorPrototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

10.2.2Intl.Collator.supportedLocalesOf ( locales [ , options ] )

When the supportedLocalesOf method is called, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let availableLocales be %Collator%.[[AvailableLocales]].
  2. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  3. Return ? SupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales, options).

The value of the length property of the supportedLocalesOf method is 1.

10.2.3Internal Slots

The value of the [[AvailableLocales]] internal slot is implementation defined within the constraints described in 9.1. The value of the [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is a List that must include the element "co", may include any or all of the elements "kn" and "kf", and must not include any other elements.

Note
Unicode Technical Standard 35 describes ten locale extension keys that are relevant to collation: "co" for collator usage and specializations, "ka" for alternate handling, "kb" for backward second level weight, "kc" for case level, "kn" for numeric, "kh" for hiragana quaternary, "kk" for normalization, "kf" for case first, "kr" for reordering, "ks" for collation strength, and "vt" for variable top. Collator, however, requires that the usage is specified through the usage property of the options object, alternate handling through the ignorePunctuation property of the options object, and case level and the strength through the sensitivity property of the options object. The "co" key in the language tag is supported only for collator specializations, and the keys "kb", "kh", "kk", "kr", and "vt" are not allowed in this version of the Internationalization API. Support for the remaining keys is implementation dependent.

The values of the [[SortLocaleData]] and [[SearchLocaleData]] internal slots are implementation defined within the constraints described in 9.1 and the following additional constraints:

  • The first element of [[SortLocaleData]][locale].co and [[SearchLocaleData]][locale].co must be null for all locale values.
  • The values "standard" and "search" must not be used as elements in any [[SortLocaleData]][locale].co and [[SearchLocaleData]][locale].co list.
  • [[SearchLocaleData]][locale] must have a sensitivity field with a String value equal to "base", "accent", "case", or "variant" for all locale values.

10.3Properties of the Intl.Collator Prototype Object

The Intl.Collator prototype object is itself an ordinary object. %CollatorPrototype% is not an Intl.Collator instance and does not have an [[InitializedCollator]] internal slot or any of the other internal slots of Intl.Collator instance objects.

In the following descriptions of functions that are properties or [[Get]] attributes of properties of %CollatorPrototype%, the phrase "this Collator object" refers to the object that is the this value for the invocation of the function; a TypeError exception is thrown if the this value is not an object or an object that does not have an [[InitializedCollator]] internal slot.

10.3.1Intl.Collator.prototype.constructor

The initial value of Intl.Collator.prototype.constructor is the intrinsic object %Collator%.

10.3.2Intl.Collator.prototype [ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the string value "Object".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

10.3.3get Intl.Collator.prototype.compare

This named accessor property returns a function that compares two strings according to the sort order of this Collator object.

The value of the [[Get]] attribute is a function that takes the following steps:

  1. Let collator be this value.
  2. If Type(collator) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. If collator does not have an [[InitializedCollator]] internal slot, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. If collator.[[BoundCompare]] is undefined, then
    1. Let F be a new built-in function object as defined in 10.3.4.
    2. Let bc be BoundFunctionCreate(F, collator, « »).
    3. Perform ! DefinePropertyOrThrow(bc, "length", PropertyDescriptor {[[Value]]: 2, [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true}).
    4. Set collator.[[BoundCompare]] to bc.
  5. Return collator.[[BoundCompare]].
Note
The function returned by [[Get]] is bound to this Collator object so that it can be passed directly to Array.prototype.sort or other functions.

The value of the [[Set]] attribute is undefined.

10.3.4Collator Compare Functions

A Collator compare function is an anonymous built-in function.

When a Collator compare function is called with arguments x and y, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let collator be the this value.
  2. Assert: Type(collator) is Object and collator has an [[InitializedCollator]] internal slot.
  3. If x is not provided, let x be undefined.
  4. If y is not provided, let y be undefined.
  5. Let X be ? ToString(x).
  6. Let Y be ? ToString(y).
  7. Return CompareStrings(collator, X, Y).

When the CompareStrings abstract operation is called with arguments collator (which must be an object initialized as a Collator), x and y (which must be String values), it returns a Number other than NaN that represents the result of a locale-sensitive String comparison of x with y. The two Strings are compared in an implementation-defined fashion. The result is intended to order String values in the sort order specified by the effective locale and collation options computed during construction of collator, and will be negative, zero, or positive, depending on whether x comes before y in the sort order, the Strings are equal under the sort order, or x comes after y in the sort order, respectively. String values must be interpreted as UTF-16 code unit sequences, and a surrogate pair (a code unit in the range 0xD800 to 0xDBFF followed by a code unit in the range 0xDC00 to 0xDFFF) within a string must be interpreted as the corresponding code point.

The sensitivity of collator is interpreted as follows:

  • base: Only strings that differ in base letters compare as unequal. Examples: a ≠ b, a = á, a = A.
  • accent: Only strings that differ in base letters or accents and other diacritic marks compare as unequal. Examples: a ≠ b, a ≠ á, a = A.
  • case: Only strings that differ in base letters or case compare as unequal. Examples: a ≠ b, a = á, a ≠ A.
  • variant: Strings that differ in base letters, accents and other diacritic marks, or case compare as unequal. Other differences may also be taken into consideration. Examples: a ≠ b, a ≠ á, a ≠ A.
Note 1
In some languages, certain letters with diacritic marks are considered base letters. For example, in Swedish, “ö” is a base letter that’s different from “o”.

If the collator is set to ignore punctuation, then strings that differ only in punctuation compare as equal.

For the interpretation of options settable through extension keys, see Unicode Technical Standard 35.

The CompareStrings abstract operation with any given collator argument, if considered as a function of the remaining two arguments x and y, must be a consistent comparison function (as defined in ES2018, 22.1.3.25) on the set of all Strings.

The actual return values are implementation-defined to permit implementers to encode additional information in the value. The method is required to return 0 when comparing Strings that are considered canonically equivalent by the Unicode standard.

Note 2
It is recommended that the CompareStrings abstract operation be implemented following Unicode Technical Standard 10, Unicode Collation Algorithm (available at https://unicode.org/reports/tr10/), using tailorings for the effective locale and collation options of collator. It is recommended that implementations use the tailorings provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at http://cldr.unicode.org/).
Note 3
Applications should not assume that the behaviour of the CompareStrings abstract operation for Collator instances with the same resolved options will remain the same for different versions of the same implementation.

10.3.5Intl.Collator.prototype.resolvedOptions ()

This function provides access to the locale and collation options computed during initialization of the object.

The function returns a new object whose properties and attributes are set as if constructed by an object literal assigning to each of the following properties the value of the corresponding internal slot of this Collator object (see 10.4): locale, usage, sensitivity, ignorePunctuation, collation, as well as those properties shown in Table 2 whose keys are included in the %Collator%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot of the standard built-in object that is the initial value of Intl.Collator.

10.4Properties of Intl.Collator Instances

Intl.Collator instances are ordinary objects that inherit properties from %CollatorPrototype%.

Intl.Collator instances have an [[InitializedCollator]] internal slot.

Intl.Collator instances also have several internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

  • [[Locale]] is a String value with the language tag of the locale whose localization is used for collation.
  • [[Usage]] is one of the String values "sort" or "search", identifying the collator usage.
  • [[Sensitivity]] is one of the String values "base", "accent", "case", or "variant", identifying the collator’s sensitivity.
  • [[IgnorePunctuation]] is a Boolean value, specifying whether punctuation should be ignored in comparisons.
  • [[Collation]] is a String value with the "type" given in Unicode Technical Standard 35 for the collation, except that the values "standard" and "search" are not allowed, while the value "default" is allowed.

Intl.Collator instances also have the following internal slots if the key corresponding to the name of the internal slot in Table 2 is included in the [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot of Intl.Collator:

  • [[Numeric]] is a Boolean value, specifying whether numeric sorting is used.
  • [[CaseFirst]] is a String value; allowed values are specified in Table 2.

Finally, Intl.Collator instances have a [[BoundCompare]] internal slot that caches the function returned by the compare accessor (10.3.3).

11NumberFormat Objects

11.1Abstract Operations For NumberFormat Objects

11.1.1SetNumberFormatDigitOptions ( intlObj, options, mnfdDefault, mxfdDefault )

The abstract operation SetNumberFormatDigitOptions applies digit options used for number formatting onto the intl object.

  1. Assert: Type(intlObj) is Object.
  2. Assert: Type(options) is Object.
  3. Assert: type(mnfdDefault) is Number.
  4. Assert: type(mxfdDefault) is Number.
  5. Let mnid be ? GetNumberOption(options, "minimumIntegerDigits,", 1, 21, 1).
  6. Let mnfd be ? GetNumberOption(options, "minimumFractionDigits", 0, 20, mnfdDefault).
  7. Let mxfdActualDefault be max( mnfd, mxfdDefault ).
  8. Let mxfd be ? GetNumberOption(options, "maximumFractionDigits", mnfd, 20, mxfdActualDefault).
  9. Let mnsd be ? Get(options, "minimumSignificantDigits").
  10. Let mxsd be ? Get(options, "maximumSignificantDigits").
  11. Set intlObj.[[MinimumIntegerDigits]] to mnid.
  12. Set intlObj.[[MinimumFractionDigits]] to mnfd.
  13. Set intlObj.[[MaximumFractionDigits]] to mxfd.
  14. If mnsd is not undefined or mxsd is not undefined, then
    1. Let mnsd be ? DefaultNumberOption(mnsd, 1, 21, 1).
    2. Let mxsd be ? DefaultNumberOption(mxsd, mnsd, 21, 21).
    3. Set intlObj.[[MinimumSignificantDigits]] to mnsd.
    4. Set intlObj.[[MaximumSignificantDigits]] to mxsd.

11.1.2InitializeNumberFormat ( numberFormat, locales, options )

The abstract operation InitializeNumberFormat accepts the arguments numberFormat (which must be an object), locales, and options. It initializes numberFormat as a NumberFormat object.

The following steps are taken:

  1. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  2. If options is undefined, then
    1. Let options be ObjectCreate(null).
  3. Else,
    1. Let options be ? ToObject(options).
  4. Let opt be a new Record.
  5. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", "string", « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  6. Set opt.[[localeMatcher]] to matcher.
  7. Let localeData be %NumberFormat%.[[LocaleData]].
  8. Let r be ResolveLocale(%NumberFormat%.[[AvailableLocales]], requestedLocales, opt, %NumberFormat%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]], localeData).
  9. Set numberFormat.[[Locale]] to r.[[locale]].
  10. Set numberFormat.[[NumberingSystem]] to r.[[nu]].
  11. Let dataLocale be r.[[dataLocale]].
  12. Let style be ? GetOption(options, "style", "string", « "decimal", "percent", "currency" », "decimal").
  13. Set numberFormat.[[Style]] to style.
  14. Let c be ? GetOption(options, "currency", "string", undefined, undefined).
  15. If c is not undefined, then
    1. If the result of IsWellFormedCurrencyCode(c) is false, throw a RangeError exception.
  16. If style is "currency" and c is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  17. If style is "currency", then
    1. Let c be the result of converting c to upper case as specified in 6.1.
    2. Set numberFormat.[[Currency]] to c.
    3. Let cDigits be CurrencyDigits(c).
  18. Let cd be ? GetOption(options, "currencyDisplay", "string", « "code", "symbol", "name" », "symbol").
  19. If style is "currency", set numberFormat.[[CurrencyDisplay]] to cd.
  20. If style is "currency", then
    1. Let mnfdDefault be cDigits.
    2. Let mxfdDefault be cDigits.
  21. Else,
    1. Let mnfdDefault be 0.
    2. If style is "percent", then
      1. Let mxfdDefault be 0.
    3. Else,
      1. Let mxfdDefault be 3.
  22. Perform ? SetNumberFormatDigitOptions(numberFormat, options, mnfdDefault, mxfdDefault).
  23. Let g be ? GetOption(options, "useGrouping", "boolean", undefined, true).
  24. Set numberFormat.[[UseGrouping]] to g.
  25. Let dataLocaleData be localeData.[[<dataLocale>]].
  26. Let patterns be dataLocaleData.[[patterns]].
  27. Assert: patterns is a record (see 11.3.3).
  28. Let stylePatterns be patterns.[[<s>]].
  29. Set numberFormat.[[PositivePattern]] to stylePatterns.[[positivePattern]].
  30. Set numberFormat.[[NegativePattern]] to stylePatterns.[[negativePattern]].
  31. Return numberFormat.

11.1.3CurrencyDigits ( currency )

When the abstract operation CurrencyDigits is called with an argument currency (which must be an upper case String value), the following steps are taken:

  1. If the ISO 4217 currency and funds code list contains currency as an alphabetic code, return the minor unit value corresponding to the currency from the list; otherwise, return 2.

11.1.4Number Format Functions

A Number format function is an anonymous built-in function.

When a Number format function is called with optional argument value, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let nf be the this value.
  2. Assert: Type(nf) is Object and nf has an [[InitializedNumberFormat]] internal slot.
  3. If value is not provided, let value be undefined.
  4. Let x be ? ToNumber(value).
  5. Return FormatNumber(nf, x).

The length property of a Number format function is 1.

11.1.5FormatNumberToString ( intlObject, x )

The FormatNumberToString abstract operation is called with arguments intlObject (which must be an object with [[MinimumSignificantDigits]], [[MaximumSignificantDigits]], [[MinimumIntegerDigits]], [[MinimumFractionDigits]], and [[MaximumFractionDigits]] internal slots), and x (which must be a Number value), and returns x as a string value with digits formatted according to the five formatting parameters.

  1. If intlObject.[[MinimumSignificantDigits]] and intlObject.[[MaximumSignificantDigits]] are both not undefined, then
    1. Let result be ToRawPrecision(x, intlObject.[[MinimumSignificantDigits]], intlObject.[[MaximumSignificantDigits]]).
  2. Else,
    1. Let result be ToRawFixed(x, intlObject.[[MinimumIntegerDigits]], intlObject.[[MinimumFractionDigits]], intlObject.[[MaximumFractionDigits]]).
  3. Return result.

11.1.6PartitionNumberPattern ( numberFormat, x )

The PartitionNumberPattern abstract operation is called with arguments numberFormat (which must be an object initialized as a NumberFormat) and x (which must be a Number value), interprets x as a numeric value, and creates the corresponding parts according to the effective locale and the formatting options of numberFormat. The following steps are taken:

  1. If x is not NaN and x < 0, then:
    1. Let x be -x.
    2. Let pattern be numberFormat.[[NegativePattern]].
  2. Else,
    1. Let pattern be numberFormat.[[PositivePattern]].
  3. Let result be a new empty List.
  4. Let beginIndex be Call(%StringProto_indexOf%, pattern, « "{", 0 »).
  5. Let endIndex be 0.
  6. Let nextIndex be 0.
  7. Let length be the number of code units in pattern.
  8. Repeat while beginIndex is an integer index into pattern:
    1. Set endIndex to Call(%StringProto_indexOf%, pattern, « "}", beginIndex »).
    2. Assert: endIndex is greater than beginIndex.
    3. If beginIndex is greater than nextIndex, then:
      1. Let literal be a substring of pattern from position nextIndex, inclusive, to position beginIndex, exclusive.
      2. Append a new Record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: literal } as the last element of result.
    4. Let p be the substring of pattern from position beginIndex, exclusive, to position endIndex, exclusive.
    5. If p is equal "number", then:
      1. If x is NaN,
        1. Let n be an ILD String value indicating the NaN value.
        2. Append a new Record { [[Type]]: "nan", [[Value]]: n } as the last element of result.
      2. Else if isFinite(x) is false,
        1. Let n be an ILD String value indicating infinity.
        2. Append a new Record { [[Type]]: "infinity", [[Value]]: n } as the last element of result.
      3. Else,
        1. If numberFormat.[[Style]] is "percent", let x be 100 × x.
        2. Let n be FormatNumberToString(numberFormat, x).
        3. If the numberFormat.[[NumberingSystem]] matches one of the values in the "Numbering System" column of Table 3 below, then
          1. Let digits be a List whose 10 String valued elements are the UTF-16 string representations of the 10 digits specified in the "Digits" column of the matching row in Table 3.
          2. Replace each digit in n with the value of digits[digit].
        4. Else use an implementation dependent algorithm to map n to the appropriate representation of n in the given numbering system.
        5. Let decimalSepIndex be Call(%StringProto_indexOf%, n, « ".", 0 »).
        6. If decimalSepIndex > 0, then:
          1. Let integer be the substring of n from position 0, inclusive, to position decimalSepIndex, exclusive.
          2. Let fraction be the substring of n from position decimalSepIndex, exclusive, to the end of n.
        7. Else:
          1. Let integer be n.
          2. Let fraction be undefined.
        8. If the numberFormat.[[UseGrouping]] is true,
          1. Let groupSepSymbol be the ILND String representing the grouping separator.
          2. Let groups be a List whose elements are, in left to right order, the substrings defined by ILND set of locations within the integer.
          3. Assert: The number of elements in groups List is greater than 0.
          4. Repeat, while groups List is not empty:
            1. Remove the first element from groups and let integerGroup be the value of that element.
            2. Append a new Record { [[Type]]: "integer", [[Value]]: integerGroup } as the last element of result.
            3. If groups List is not empty, then:
              1. Append a new Record { [[Type]]: "group", [[Value]]: groupSepSymbol } as the last element of result.
        9. Else,
          1. Append a new Record { [[Type]]: "integer", [[Value]]: integer } as the last element of result.
        10. If fraction is not undefined, then:
          1. Let decimalSepSymbol be the ILND String representing the decimal separator.
          2. Append a new Record { [[Type]]: "decimal", [[Value]]: decimalSepSymbol } as the last element of result.
          3. Append a new Record { [[Type]]: "fraction", [[Value]]: fraction } as the last element of result.
    6. Else if p is equal "plusSign", then:
      1. Let plusSignSymbol be the ILND String representing the plus sign.
      2. Append a new Record { [[Type]]: "plusSign", [[Value]]: plusSignSymbol } as the last element of result.
    7. Else if p is equal "minusSign", then:
      1. Let minusSignSymbol be the ILND String representing the minus sign.
      2. Append a new Record { [[Type]]: "minusSign", [[Value]]: minusSignSymbol } as the last element of result.
    8. Else if p is equal "percentSign" and numberFormat.[[Style]] is "percent", then:
      1. Let percentSignSymbol be the ILND String representing the percent sign.
      2. Append a new Record { [[Type]]: "percentSign", [[Value]]: percentSignSymbol } as the last element of result.
    9. Else if p is equal "currency" and numberFormat.[[Style]] is "currency", then:
      1. Let currency be numberFormat.[[Currency]].
      2. Assert: numberFormat.[[CurrencyDisplay]] is "code", "symbol" or "name".
      3. If numberFormat.[[CurrencyDisplay]] is "code", then
        1. Let cd be currency.
      4. Else if numberFormat.[[CurrencyDisplay]] is "symbol", then
        1. Let cd be an ILD string representing currency in short form. If the implementation does not have such a representation of currency, use currency itself.
      5. Else if numberFormat.[[CurrencyDisplay]] is "name", then
        1. Let cd be an ILD string representing currency in long form. If the implementation does not have such a representation of currency, use currency itself.
      6. Append a new Record { [[Type]]: "currency", [[Value]]: cd } as the last element of result.
    10. Else,
      1. Let literal be the substring of pattern from position beginIndex, inclusive, to position endIndex, inclusive.
      2. Append a new Record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: literal } as the last element of result.
    11. Set nextIndex to endIndex + 1.
    12. Set beginIndex to Call(%StringProto_indexOf%, pattern, « "{", nextIndex »).
  9. If nextIndex is less than length, then:
    1. Let literal be the substring of pattern from position nextIndex, inclusive, to position length, exclusive.
    2. Append a new Record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: literal } as the last element of result.
  10. Return result.
Table 3: Numbering systems with simple digit mappings
Numbering System Digits
arab U+0660 to U+0669
arabext U+06F0 to U+06F9
bali U+1B50 to U+1B59
beng U+09E6 to U+09EF
deva U+0966 to U+096F
fullwide U+FF10 to U+FF19
gujr U+0AE6 to U+0AEF
guru U+0A66 to U+0A6F
hanidec U+3007, U+4E00, U+4E8C, U+4E09, U+56DB, U+4E94, U+516D, U+4E03, U+516B, U+4E5D
khmr U+17E0 to U+17E9
knda U+0CE6 to U+0CEF
laoo U+0ED0 to U+0ED9
latn U+0030 to U+0039
limb U+1946 to U+194F
mlym U+0D66 to U+0D6F
mong U+1810 to U+1819
mymr U+1040 to U+1049
orya U+0B66 to U+0B6F
tamldec U+0BE6 to U+0BEF
telu U+0C66 to U+0C6F
thai U+0E50 to U+0E59
tibt U+0F20 to U+0F29
Note 1
The computations rely on String values and locations within numeric strings that are dependent upon the implementation and the effective locale of numberFormat (“ILD") or upon the implementation, the effective locale, and the numbering system of numberFormat (“ILND"). The ILD and ILND Strings mentioned, other than those for currency names, must not contain any characters in the General Category “Number, decimal digit" as specified by the Unicode Standard.
Note 2
It is recommended that implementations use the locale provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at http://cldr.unicode.org/).

11.1.7FormatNumber( numberFormat, x )

The FormatNumber abstract operation is called with arguments numberFormat (which must be an object initialized as a NumberFormat) and x (which must be a Number value), and performs the following steps:

  1. Let parts be ? PartitionNumberPattern(numberFormat, x).
  2. Let result be the empty String.
  3. For each part in parts, do:
    1. Set result to a String value produced by concatenating result and part.[[Value]].
  4. Return result.

11.1.8FormatNumberToParts( numberFormat, x )

The FormatNumberToParts abstract operation is called with arguments numberFormat (which must be an object initialized as a NumberFormat) and x (which must be a Number value), and performs the following steps:

  1. Let parts be ? PartitionNumberPattern(numberFormat, x).
  2. Let result be ArrayCreate(0).
  3. Let n be 0.
  4. For each part in parts, do:
    1. Let O be ObjectCreate(%ObjectPrototype%).
    2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "type", part.[[Type]]).
    3. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "value", part.[[Value]]).
    4. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(result, ! ToString(n), O).
    5. Increment n by 1.
  5. Return result.

11.1.9ToRawPrecision( x, minPrecision, maxPrecision )

When the ToRawPrecision abstract operation is called with arguments x (which must be a finite non-negative number), minPrecision, and maxPrecision (both must be integers between 1 and 21), the following steps are taken:

  1. Let p be maxPrecision.
  2. If x = 0, then
    1. Let m be the String consisting of p occurrences of the character "0".
    2. Let e be 0.
  3. Else,
    1. Let e and n be integers such that 10p–1n < 10p and for which the exact mathematical value of n × 10ep+1x is as close to zero as possible. If there are two such sets of e and n, pick the e and n for which n × 10ep+1 is larger.
    2. Let m be the String consisting of the digits of the decimal representation of n (in order, with no leading zeroes).
  4. If ep, then
    1. Return the concatenation of m and e-p+1 occurrences of the character "0".
  5. If e = p-1, then
    1. Return m.
  6. If e ≥ 0, then
    1. Let m be the concatenation of the first e+1 characters of m, the character ".", and the remaining p–(e+1) characters of m.
  7. If e < 0, then
    1. Let m be the concatenation of the String "0.", –(e+1) occurrences of the character "0", and the string m.
  8. If m contains the character ".", and maxPrecision > minPrecision, then
    1. Let cut be maxPrecisionminPrecision.
    2. Repeat, while cut > 0 and the last character of m is "0"
      1. Remove the last character from m.
      2. Decrease cut by 1.
    3. If the last character of m is ".", then
      1. Remove the last character from m.
  9. Return m.

11.1.10ToRawFixed( x, minInteger, minFraction, maxFraction )

When the ToRawFixed abstract operation is called with arguments x (which must be a finite non-negative number), minInteger (which must be an integer between 1 and 21), minFraction, and maxFraction (which must be integers between 0 and 20), the following steps are taken:

  1. Let f be maxFraction.
  2. Let n be an integer for which the exact mathematical value of n ÷ 10fx is as close to zero as possible. If there are two such n, pick the larger n.
  3. If n = 0, let m be the String "0". Otherwise, let m be the String consisting of the digits of the decimal representation of n (in order, with no leading zeroes).
  4. If f ≠ 0, then
    1. Let k be the number of characters in m.
    2. If kf, then
      1. Let z be the String consisting of f+1–k occurrences of the character "0".
      2. Let m be the concatenation of Strings z and m.
      3. Let k be f+1.
    3. Let a be the first kf characters of m, and let b be the remaining f characters of m.
    4. Let m be the concatenation of the three Strings a, ".", and b.
    5. Let int be the number of characters in a.
  5. Else, let int be the number of characters in m.
  6. Let cut be maxFractionminFraction.
  7. Repeat, while cut > 0 and the last character of m is "0"
    1. Remove the last character from m.
    2. Decrease cut by 1.
  8. If the last character of m is ".", then
    1. Remove the last character from m.
  9. If int < minInteger, then
    1. Let z be the String consisting of minIntegerint occurrences of the character "0".
    2. Let m be the concatenation of Strings z and m.
  10. Return m.

11.1.11UnwrapNumberFormat( nf )

The UnwrapNumberFormat abstract operation gets the underlying NumberFormat operation for various methods which implement ECMA-402 v1 semantics for supporting initializing existing Intl objects.

  1. If Type(nf) is Object and nf does not have an [[InitializedNumberFormat]] internal slot and ? InstanceofOperator(nf, %NumberFormat%) is true, then
    1. Let nf be ? Get(nf, Intl.[[FallbackSymbol]]).
  1. If Type(nf) is not Object or nf does not have an [[InitializedNumberFormat]] internal slot, then
    1. Throw a TypeError exception.
  2. Return nf.
Note
See 8.1 Note 1 for the motivation of the normative optional text.

11.2The Intl.NumberFormat Constructor

The NumberFormat constructor is the %NumberFormat% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object. Behaviour common to all service constructor properties of the Intl object is specified in 9.1.

11.2.1Intl.NumberFormat ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

When the Intl.NumberFormat function is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, let newTarget be the active function object, else let newTarget be NewTarget.
  2. Let numberFormat be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(newTarget, "%NumberFormatPrototype%", « [[InitializedNumberFormat]], [[Locale]], [[NumberingSystem]], [[Style]], [[Currency]], [[CurrencyDisplay]], [[MinimumIntegerDigits]], [[MinimumFractionDigits]], [[MaximumFractionDigits]], [[MinimumSignificantDigits]], [[MaximumSignificantDigits]], [[UseGrouping]], [[PositivePattern]], [[NegativePattern]], [[BoundFormat]] »).
  3. Perform ? InitializeNumberFormat(numberFormat, locales, options).
  1. Let this be the this value.
  2. If NewTarget is undefined and ? InstanceofOperator(this, %NumberFormat%) is true, then
    1. Perform ? DefineOwnPropertyOrThrow(this, Intl.[[FallbackSymbol]], { [[Value]]: numberFormat, [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }).
    2. Return this.
  1. Return numberFormat.
Note
See 8.1 Note 1 for the motivation of the normative optional text.

11.3Properties of the Intl.NumberFormat Constructor

The Intl.NumberFormat constructor has the following properties:

11.3.1Intl.NumberFormat.prototype

The value of Intl.NumberFormat.prototype is %NumberFormatPrototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

11.3.2Intl.NumberFormat.supportedLocalesOf ( locales [ , options ] )

When the supportedLocalesOf method is called with arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let availableLocales be %NumberFormat%.[[AvailableLocales]].
  2. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  3. Return ? SupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales, options).

The value of the length property of the supportedLocalesOf method is 1.

11.3.3Internal slots

The value of the [[AvailableLocales]] internal slot is implementation defined within the constraints described in 9.1.

The value of the [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is « "nu" ».

Note 1
Unicode Technical Standard 35 describes two locale extension keys that are relevant to number formatting, "nu" for numbering system and "cu" for currency. Intl.NumberFormat, however, requires that the currency of a currency format is specified through the currency property in the options objects.

The value of the [[LocaleData]] internal slot is implementation defined within the constraints described in 9.1 and the following additional constraints:

  • The list that is the value of the "nu" field of any locale field of [[LocaleData]] must not include the values "native", "traditio", or "finance".
  • [[LocaleData]][locale] must have a patterns field for all locale values. The value of this field must be a record, which must have fields with the names of the three number format styles: "decimal", "percent", and "currency". Each of these fields in turn must be a record with the fields positivePattern and negativePattern. The value of these fields must be string values that must contain the substring "{number}" and may contain the substrings "{plusSign}", and "{minusSign}"; the values within the percent field must also contain the substring "{percentSign}"; the values within the currency field must also contain the substring "{currency}". The pattern strings must not contain any characters in the General Category “Number, decimal digit" as specified by the Unicode Standard.
Note 2
It is recommended that implementations use the locale data provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at http://cldr.unicode.org/).

11.4Properties of the Intl.NumberFormat Prototype Object

The Intl.NumberFormat prototype object is itself an ordinary object. %NumberFormatPrototype% is not an Intl.NumberFormat instance and does not have an [[InitializedNumberFormat]] internal slot or any of the other internal slots of Intl.NumberFormat instance objects.

In the following descriptions of functions that are properties or [[Get]] attributes of properties of %NumberFormatPrototype%, the phrase "this NumberFormat object" refers to the object that is the this value for the invocation of the function; a TypeError exception is thrown if the this value is not an object or an object that does not have an [[InitializedNumberFormat]] internal slot.

11.4.1Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.constructor

The initial value of Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.constructor is the intrinsic object %NumberFormat%.

11.4.2Intl.NumberFormat.prototype [ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the string value "Object".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

11.4.3get Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.format

Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.format is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let nf be this value.
  2. If Type(nf) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. Let nf be ? UnwrapNumberFormat(nf).
  4. If nf.[[BoundFormat]] is undefined, then
    1. Let F be a new built-in function object as defined in Number Format Functions (11.1.4).
    2. Let bf be BoundFunctionCreate(F, nf, « »).
    3. Perform ! DefinePropertyOrThrow(bf, "length", PropertyDescriptor {[[Value]]: 1, [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true}).
    4. Set nf.[[BoundFormat]] to bf.
  5. Return nf.[[BoundFormat]].

11.4.4Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.formatToParts ( value )

When the Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.formatToParts is called with an optional argument value, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let nf be this value.
  2. If Type(nf) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. If nf does not have an [[InitializedNumberFormat]] internal slot, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. Let x be ? ToNumber(value).
  5. Return ? FormatNumberToParts(nf, x).

11.4.5Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.resolvedOptions ()

This function provides access to the locale and formatting options computed during initialization of the object. This function initially invokes the internal algorithm UnwrapNumberFormat to get the %NumberFormat% object on which to operate.

The function returns a new object whose properties and attributes are set as if constructed by an object literal assigning to each of the following properties the value of the corresponding internal slot of this NumberFormat object (see 11.5): locale, numberingSystem, style, currency, currencyDisplay, minimumIntegerDigits, minimumFractionDigits, maximumFractionDigits, minimumSignificantDigits, maximumSignificantDigits, and useGrouping. Properties whose corresponding internal slots have the value undefined are not assigned.

11.5Properties of Intl.NumberFormat Instances

Intl.NumberFormat instances inherit properties from %NumberFormatPrototype%.

Intl.NumberFormat instances have an [[InitializedNumberFormat]] internal slot.

Intl.NumberFormat instances also have several internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

  • [[Locale]] is a String value with the language tag of the locale whose localization is used for formatting.
  • [[NumberingSystem]] is a String value with the “type” given in Unicode Technical Standard 35 for the numbering system used for formatting.
  • [[Style]] is one of the String values "decimal", "currency", or "percent", identifying the number format style used.
  • [[Currency]] is a String value with the currency code identifying the currency to be used if formatting with the "currency" style. It is only used when [[Style]] has the value "currency".
  • [[CurrencyDisplay]] is one of the String values "code", "symbol", or "name", specifying whether to display the currency as an ISO 4217 alphabetic currency code, a localized currency symbol, or a localized currency name if formatting with the "currency" style. It is only used when [[Style]] has the value "currency".
  • [[MinimumIntegerDigits]] is a non-negative integer Number value indicating the minimum integer digits to be used. Numbers will be padded with leading zeroes if necessary.
  • [[MinimumFractionDigits]] and [[MaximumFractionDigits]] are non-negative integer Number values indicating the minimum and maximum fraction digits to be used. Numbers will be rounded or padded with trailing zeroes if necessary.
  • [[MinimumSignificantDigits]] and [[MaximumSignificantDigits]] are positive integer Number values indicating the minimum and maximum fraction digits to be shown. Either none or both of these properties are present; if they are, they override minimum and maximum integer and fraction digits – the formatter uses however many integer and fraction digits are required to display the specified number of significant digits.
  • [[UseGrouping]] is a Boolean value indicating whether a grouping separator should be used.
  • [[PositivePattern]] and [[NegativePattern]] are String values as described in 11.3.3.

Finally, Intl.NumberFormat instances have a [[BoundFormat]] internal slot that caches the function returned by the format accessor (11.4.3).

12DateTimeFormat Objects

12.1Abstract Operations For DateTimeFormat Objects

Several DateTimeFormat algorithms use values from the following table, which provides internal slots, property names and allowable values for the components of date and time formats:

Table 4: Components of date and time formats
Internal Slot Property Values
[[Weekday]] "weekday" "narrow", "short", "long"
[[Era]] "era" "narrow", "short", "long"
[[Year]] "year" "2-digit", "numeric"
[[Month]] "month" "2-digit", "numeric", "narrow", "short", "long"
[[Day]] "day" "2-digit", "numeric"
[[Hour]] "hour" "2-digit", "numeric"
[[Minute]] "minute" "2-digit", "numeric"
[[Second]] "second" "2-digit", "numeric"
[[TimeZoneName]] "timeZoneName" "short", "long"

12.1.1InitializeDateTimeFormat ( dateTimeFormat, locales, options )

The abstract operation InitializeDateTimeFormat accepts the arguments dateTimeFormat (which must be an object), locales, and options. It initializes dateTimeFormat as a DateTimeFormat object. This abstract operation functions as follows:

  1. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  2. Let options be ? ToDateTimeOptions(options, "any", "date").
  3. Let opt be a new Record.
  4. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", "string", « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  5. Set opt.[[localeMatcher]] to matcher.
  6. Let hc be ? GetOption(options, "hourCycle", "string", « "h11", "h12", "h23", "h24" », undefined).
  7. Set opt.[[hc]] to hc.
  8. Let localeData be %DateTimeFormat%.[[LocaleData]].
  9. Let r be ResolveLocale( %DateTimeFormat%.[[AvailableLocales]], requestedLocales, opt, %DateTimeFormat%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]], localeData).
  10. Set dateTimeFormat.[[Locale]] to r.[[locale]].
  11. Set dateTimeFormat.[[Calendar]] to r.[[ca]].
  12. Set dateTimeFormat.[[HourCycle]] to r.[[hc]].
  13. Set dateTimeFormat.[[NumberingSystem]] to r.[[nu]].
  14. Let dataLocale be r.[[dataLocale]].
  15. Let tz be ? Get(options, "timeZone").
  16. If tz is not undefined, then
    1. Let tz be ? ToString(tz).
    2. If the result of IsValidTimeZoneName(tz) is false, then
      1. Throw a RangeError exception.
    3. Let tz be CanonicalizeTimeZoneName(tz).
  17. Else,
    1. Let tz be DefaultTimeZone().
  18. Set dateTimeFormat.[[TimeZone]] to tz.
  19. Let opt be a new Record.
  20. For each row of Table 4, except the header row, do:
    1. Let prop be the name given in the Property column of the row.
    2. Let value be ? GetOption(options, prop, "string", « the strings given in the Values column of the row », undefined).
    3. Set opt.[[<prop>]] to value.
  21. Let dataLocaleData be localeData.[[<dataLocale>]].
  22. Let formats be dataLocaleData.[[formats]].
  23. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "formatMatcher", "string", « "basic", "best fit" », "best fit").
  24. If matcher is "basic", then
    1. Let bestFormat be BasicFormatMatcher(opt, formats).
  25. Else,
    1. Let bestFormat be BestFitFormatMatcher(opt, formats).
  26. For each row in Table 4, except the header row, do
    1. Let prop be the name given in the Property column of the row.
    2. Let p be bestFormat.[[<prop>]].
    3. If p not undefined, then
      1. Set dateTimeFormat's internal slot whose name is the Internal Slot column of the row to p.
  27. Let hr12 be ? GetOption(options, "hour12", "boolean", undefined, undefined).
  28. If dateTimeFormat.[[Hour]] is not undefined, then
    1. Let hcDefault be dataLocaleData.[[hourCycle]].
    2. Let hc be dateTimeFormat.[[HourCycle]].
    3. If hc is null, then
      1. Set hc to hcDefault.
    4. If hr12 is not undefined, then
      1. If hr12 is true, then
        1. If hcDefault is "h11" or "h23", then
          1. Set hc to "h11".
        2. Else,
          1. Set hc to "h12".
      2. Else,
        1. Assert: hr12 is false.
        2. If hcDefault is "h11" or "h23", then
          1. Set hc to "h23".
        3. Else,
          1. Set hc to "h24".
    5. Set dateTimeFormat.[[HourCycle]] to hc.
    6. If dateTimeformat.[[HourCycle]] is "h11" or "h12", then
      1. Let pattern be bestFormat.[[pattern12]].
    7. Else,
      1. Let pattern be bestFormat.[[pattern]].
  29. Else,
    1. Set dateTimeFormat.[[HourCycle]] to undefined.
    2. Let pattern be Get(bestFormat, "pattern").
  30. Set dateTimeFormat.[[Pattern]] to pattern.
  31. Return dateTimeFormat.

12.1.2ToDateTimeOptions ( options, required, defaults )

When the ToDateTimeOptions abstract operation is called with arguments options, required, and defaults, the following steps are taken:

  1. If options is undefined, let options be null; otherwise let options be ? ToObject(options).
  2. Let options be ObjectCreate(options).
  3. Let needDefaults be true.
  4. If required is "date" or "any",
    1. For each of the property names "weekday", "year", "month", "day":
      1. Let prop be the property name.
      2. Let value be ? Get(options, prop).
      3. If value is not undefined, let needDefaults be false.
  5. If required is "time" or "any",
    1. For each of the property names "hour", "minute", "second":
      1. Let prop be the property name.
      2. Let value be ? Get(options, prop).
      3. If value is not undefined, let needDefaults be false.
  6. If needDefaults is true and defaults is either "date" or "all", then
    1. For each of the property names "year", "month", "day":
      1. Perform ? CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(options, prop, "numeric").
  7. If needDefaults is true and defaults is either "time" or "all", then
    1. For each of the property names "hour", "minute", "second":
      1. Perform ? CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(options, prop, "numeric").
  8. Return options.

12.1.3BasicFormatMatcher ( options, formats )

When the BasicFormatMatcher abstract operation is called with two arguments options and formats, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let removalPenalty be 120.
  2. Let additionPenalty be 20.
  3. Let longLessPenalty be 8.
  4. Let longMorePenalty be 6.
  5. Let shortLessPenalty be 6.
  6. Let shortMorePenalty be 3.
  7. Let bestScore be -Infinity.
  8. Let bestFormat be undefined.
  9. Assert: Type(formats) is List.
  10. Repeat for each element format of formats in List order,
    1. Let score be 0.
    2. For each property shown in Table 4:
      1. Let optionsProp be options.[[<property>]].
      2. Let formatProp be format.[[<property>]].
      3. If optionsProp is undefined and formatProp is not undefined, then decrease score by additionPenalty.
      4. Else if optionsProp is not undefined and formatProp is undefined, then decrease score by removalPenalty.
      5. Else if optionsPropformatProp,
        1. Let values be « "2-digit", "numeric", "narrow", "short", "long" ».
        2. Let optionsPropIndex be the index of optionsProp within values.
        3. Let formatPropIndex be the index of formatProp within values.
        4. Let delta be max(min(formatPropIndex - optionsPropIndex, 2), -2).
        5. If delta = 2, decrease score by longMorePenalty.
        6. Else if delta = 1, decrease score by shortMorePenalty.
        7. Else if delta = -1, decrease score by shortLessPenalty.
        8. Else if delta = -2, decrease score by longLessPenalty.
    3. If score > bestScore,
      1. Let bestScore be score.
      2. Let bestFormat be format.
  11. Return bestFormat.

12.1.4BestFitFormatMatcher ( options, formats )

When the BestFitFormatMatcher abstract operation is called with two arguments options and formats, it performs implementation dependent steps, which should return a set of component representations that a typical user of the selected locale would perceive as at least as good as the one returned by BasicFormatMatcher.

12.1.5DateTime Format Functions

A DateTime format function is an anonymous built-in function.

When a DateTime format function is called with optional argument date, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let dtf be the this value.
  2. Assert: Type(dtf) is Object and dtf has an [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slot.
  3. If date is not provided or is undefined, then
    1. Let x be Call(%Date_now%, undefined).
  4. Else,
    1. Let x be ? ToNumber(date).
  5. Return FormatDateTime(dtf, x).
Note
The function returned by [[Get]] is bound to this DateTimeFormat object so that it can be passed directly to Array.prototype.map or other functions.

The length property of a DateTime format function is 1.

12.1.6PartitionDateTimePattern ( dateTimeFormat, x )

The PartitionDateTimePattern abstract operation is called with arguments dateTimeFormat (which must be an object initialized as a DateTimeFormat) and x (which must be a Number value), interprets x as a time value as specified in ES2015, 20.3.1.1, and creates the corresponding parts according to the effective locale and the formatting options of dateTimeFormat. The following steps are taken:

  1. If x is not a finite Number, throw a RangeError exception.
  2. Let locale be dateTimeFormat.[[Locale]].
  3. Let nfOptions be ObjectCreate(null).
  4. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(nfOptions, "useGrouping", false).
  5. Let nf be ? Construct(%NumberFormat%, « locale, nfOptions »).
  6. Let nf2Options be ObjectCreate(null).
  7. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(nf2Options, "minimumIntegerDigits", 2).
  8. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(nf2Options, "useGrouping", false).
  9. Let nf2 be ? Construct(%NumberFormat%, « locale, nf2Options »).
  10. Let tm be ToLocalTime(x, dateTimeFormat.[[Calendar]], dateTimeFormat.[[TimeZone]]).
  11. Let pattern be dateTimeFormat.[[Pattern]].
  12. Let result be a new empty List.
  13. Let beginIndex be Call(%StringProto_indexOf%, pattern, « "{", 0 »).
  14. Let endIndex be 0.
  15. Let nextIndex be 0.
  16. Let length be the number of code units in pattern.
  17. Repeat while beginIndex is an integer index into pattern:
    1. Set endIndex to Call(%StringProto_indexOf%, pattern, « "}", beginIndex »).
    2. Assert: endIndex is greater than beginIndex.
    3. If beginIndex is greater than nextIndex, then:
      1. Let literal be a substring of pattern from position nextIndex, inclusive, to position beginIndex, exclusive.
      2. Add new part record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: literal } as a new element of the list result.
    4. Let p be the substring of pattern from position beginIndex, exclusive, to position endIndex, exclusive.
    5. If p matches a Property column of the row in Table 4, then:
      1. Let f be the value of dateTimeFormat's internal slot whose name is the Internal Slot column of the matching row.
      2. Let v be the value of tm's field whose name is the Internal Slot column of the matching row.
      3. If p is "year" and v ≤ 0, let v be 1 - v.
      4. If p is "month", increase v by 1.
      5. If p is "hour" and dateTimeFormat.[[HourCycle]] is "h11" or "h12", then
        1. Let v be v modulo 12.
        2. If v is 0 and dateTimeFormat.[[HourCycle]] is "h12", let v be 12.
      6. If p is "hour" and dateTimeFormat.[[HourCycle]] is "h24", then
        1. If v is 0, let v be 24.
      7. If f is "numeric", then
        1. Let fv be FormatNumber(nf, v).
      8. Else if f is "2-digit", then
        1. Let fv be FormatNumber(nf2, v).
        2. If the length property of fv is greater than 2, let fv be the substring of fv containing the last two characters.
      9. Else if f is "narrow", "short", or "long", then let fv be a String value representing f in the desired form; the String value depends upon the implementation and the effective locale and calendar of dateTimeFormat. If p is "month", then the String value may also depend on whether dateTimeFormat has a [[Day]] internal slot. If p is "timeZoneName", then the String value may also depend on the value of the [[inDST]] field of tm. If p is "era", then the String value may also depend on whether dateTimeFormat has a [[Era]] internal slot and if the implementation does not have a localized representation of f, then use f itself.
      10. Add new part record { [[Type]]: p, [[Value]]: fv } as a new element of the list result.
    6. Else if p is equal "ampm", then:
      1. Let v be tm.[[hour]].
      2. If v is greater than 11, then:
        1. Let fv be an implementation and locale dependent String value representing "post meridiem";
      3. Else,
        1. Let fv be an implementation and locale dependent String value representing "ante meridiem".
      4. Add new part record { [[Type]]: "dayPeriod", [[Value]]: fv } as a new element of the list result.
      5. Let literal be the substring of pattern from position beginIndex, inclusive, to position endIndex, inclusive.
      6. Add new part record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: literal } as a new element of the list result.
    7. Set nextIndex to endIndex + 1.
    8. Set beginIndex to Call(%StringProto_indexOf%, pattern, « "}", nextIndex »).
  18. If nextIndex is less than length, then:
    1. Let literal be the substring of pattern from position nextIndex, exclusive, to position length, exclusive.
    2. Add new part record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: literal } as a new element of the list result.
  19. Return result.
Note 1
It is recommended that implementations use the locale and calendar dependent strings provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at http://cldr.unicode.org/), and use CLDR "abbreviated" strings for DateTimeFormat "short" strings, and CLDR "wide" strings for DateTimeFormat "long" strings.
Note 2
It is recommended that implementations use the time zone information of the IANA Time Zone Database.

12.1.7FormatDateTime( dateTimeFormat, x )

The FormatDateTime abstract operation is called with arguments dateTimeFormat (which must be an object initialized as a DateTimeFormat) and x (which must be a Number value), and performs the following steps:

  1. Let parts be ? PartitionDateTimePattern(dateTimeFormat, x).
  2. Let result be the empty String.
  3. For each part in parts, do:
    1. Set result to a String value produced by concatenating result and part.[[Value]].
  4. Return result.

12.1.8FormatDateTimeToParts ( dateTimeFormat, x )

The FormatDateTimeToParts abstract operation is called with arguments dateTimeFormat (which must be an object initialized as a DateTimeFormat) and x (which must be a Number value), and performs the following steps:

  1. Let parts be ? PartitionDateTimePattern(dateTimeFormat, x).
  2. Let result be ArrayCreate(0).
  3. Let n be 0.
  4. For each part in parts, do:
    1. Let O be ObjectCreate(%ObjectPrototype%).
    2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "type", part.[[Type]]).
    3. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "value", part.[[Value]]).
    4. Perform ! CreateDataProperty(result, ! ToString(n), O).
    5. Increment n by 1.
  5. Return result.

12.1.9ToLocalTime ( date, calendar, timeZone )

When the ToLocalTime abstract operation is called with arguments date, calendar, and timeZone, the following steps are taken:

  1. Apply calendrical calculations on date for the given calendar and timeZone to produce weekday, era, year, month, day, hour, minute, second, and inDST values. The calculations should use best available information about the specified calendar and timeZone, including current and historical information about time zone offsets from UTC and daylight saving time rules. If the calendar is "gregory", then the calculations must match the algorithms specified in ES2018, 20.3.1.
  2. Return a Record with fields [[weekday]], [[era]], [[year]], [[month]], [[day]], [[hour]], [[minute]], [[second]], and [[inDST]], each with the corresponding calculated value.
Note
It is recommended that implementations use the time zone information of the IANA Time Zone Database.

12.1.10UnwrapDateTimeFormat( dtf )

The UnwrapDateTimeFormat abstract operation gets the underlying DateTimeFormat operation for various methods which implement ECMA-402 v1 semantics for supporting initializing existing Intl objects.

  1. If Type(dtf) is Object and dtf does not have an [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slot and ? InstanceofOperator(dtf, %DateTimeFormat%) is true, then
    1. Let dtf be ? Get(dtf, Intl.[[FallbackSymbol]]).
  1. If Type(dtf) is not Object or dtf does not have an [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slot, then
    1. Throw a TypeError exception.
  2. Return dtf.
Note
See 8.1 Note 1 for the motivation of the normative optional text.

12.2The Intl.DateTimeFormat Constructor

The Intl.DateTimeFormat constructor is the %DateTimeFormat% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object. Behaviour common to all service constructor properties of the Intl object is specified in 9.1.

12.2.1Intl.DateTimeFormat ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

When the Intl.DateTimeFormat function is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, let newTarget be the active function object, else let newTarget be NewTarget.
  2. Let dateTimeFormat be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(newTarget, "%DateTimeFormatPrototype%", « [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]], [[Locale]], [[Calendar]], [[NumberingSystem]], [[TimeZone]], [[Weekday]], [[Era]], [[Year]], [[Month]], [[Day]], [[Hour]], [[Minute]], [[Second]], [[TimeZoneName]], [[HourCycle]], [[Pattern]], [[BoundFormat]] »).
  3. Perform ? InitializeDateTimeFormat(dateTimeFormat, locales, options).
  1. Let this be the this value.
  2. If NewTarget is undefined and ? InstanceofOperator(this, %DateTimeFormat%) is true, then
    1. Perform ? DefineOwnPropertyOrThrow(this, Intl.[[FallbackSymbol]], { [[Value]]: dateTimeFormat, [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }).
    2. Return this.
  1. Return dateTimeFormat.
Note
See 8.1 Note 1 for the motivation of the normative optional text.

12.3Properties of the Intl.DateTimeFormat Constructor

The Intl.DateTimeFormat constructor has the following properties:

12.3.1Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype

The value of Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype is %DateTimeFormatPrototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

12.3.2Intl.DateTimeFormat.supportedLocalesOf ( locales [ , options ] )

When the supportedLocalesOf method is called with arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let availableLocales be %DateTimeFormat%.[[AvailableLocales]].
  2. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  3. Return ? SupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales, options).

The value of the length property of the supportedLocalesOf method is 1.

12.3.3Internal slots

The value of the [[AvailableLocales]] internal slot is implementation defined within the constraints described in 9.1.

The value of the [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is « "ca", "nu", "hc" ».

Note 1
Unicode Technical Standard 35 describes three locale extension keys that are relevant to date and time formatting, "ca" for calendar, "tz" for time zone, "hc" for hour cycle, and implicitly "nu" for the numbering system of the number format used for numbers within the date format. DateTimeFormat, however, requires that the time zone is specified through the timeZone property in the options objects.

The value of the [[LocaleData]] internal slot is implementation defined within the constraints described in 9.1 and the following additional constraints:

  • The list that is the value of the "nu" field of any locale field of [[LocaleData]] must not include the values "native", "traditio", or "finance".
  • [[LocaleData]][locale].hc must be « null, "h11", "h12", "h23", "h24" » for all locale values.
  • [[LocaleData]][locale] must have a hourCycle field with a String value equal to "h11", "h12", "h23", or "h24" for all locale values.
  • [[LocaleData]][locale] must have a formats field for all locale values. The value of this field must be a list of records, each of which has a subset of the fields shown in Table 4, where each field must have one of the values specified for the field in Table 4. Multiple records in a list may use the same subset of the fields as long as they have different values for the fields. The following subsets must be available for each locale:
    • weekday, year, month, day, hour, minute, second
    • weekday, year, month, day
    • year, month, day
    • year, month
    • month, day
    • hour, minute, second
    • hour, minute
    Each of the records must also have a pattern field, whose value is a String value that contains for each of the date and time format component fields of the record a substring starting with "{", followed by the name of the field, followed by "}". If the record has an hour field, it must also have a pattern12 field, whose value is a String value that, in addition to the substrings of the pattern field, contains a substring "{ampm}".

EXAMPLE An implementation might include the following record as part of its English locale data: {[[hour]]: "numeric", [[minute]]: "2-digit", [[second]]: "2-digit", [[pattern]]: "{hour}:{minute}:{second}", [[pattern12]]: "{hour}:{minute}:{second} {ampm}"}.

Note 2
It is recommended that implementations use the locale data provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at http://cldr.unicode.org/).

12.4Properties of the Intl.DateTimeFormat Prototype Object

The Intl.DateTimeFormat prototype object is itself an ordinary object. %DateTimeFormatPrototype% is not an Intl.DateTimeFormat instance and does not have an [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slot or any of the other internal slots of Intl.DateTimeFormat instance objects.

In the following descriptions of functions that are properties or [[Get]] attributes of properties of the Intl.DateTimeFormat prototype object, the phrase "this DateTimeFormat object" refers to the object that is the this value for the invocation of the function; a TypeError exception is thrown if the this value is not an object or an object that does not have an [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slot.

12.4.1Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.constructor

The initial value of Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.constructor is the intrinsic object %DateTimeFormat%.

12.4.2Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype [ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the string value "Object".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

12.4.3get Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.format

Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.format is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let dtf be this value.
  2. If Type(dtf) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. Let dtf be ? UnwrapDateTimeFormat(dtf).
  4. If dtf.[[BoundFormat]] is undefined, then
    1. Let F be a new built-in function object as defined in DateTime Format Functions (12.1.5).
    2. Let bf be BoundFunctionCreate(F, dft, « »).
    3. Perform ! DefinePropertyOrThrow(bf, "length", PropertyDescriptor {[[Value]]: 1, [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true}).
    4. Set dtf.[[BoundFormat]] to bf.
  5. Return dtf.[[BoundFormat]].

12.4.4Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.formatToParts ( date )

When the formatToParts method is called with an argument date, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let dtf be this value.
  2. If Type(dtf) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. If dtf does not have an [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slot, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. If date is undefined, then
    1. Let x be Call(%Date_now%, undefined).
  5. Else,
    1. Let x be ? ToNumber(date).
  6. Return ? FormatDateTimeToParts(dtf, x).

12.4.5Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.resolvedOptions ()

This function provides access to the locale and formatting options computed during initialization of the object. This function initially invokes the internal algorithm UnwrapDateTimeFormat to get the %DateTimeFormat% object on which to operate.

The function returns a new object whose properties and attributes are set as if constructed by an object literal assigning to each of the following properties the value of the corresponding internal slot of this DateTimeFormat object (see 12.5): locale, calendar, numberingSystem, timeZone, hourCycle, weekday, era, year, month, day, hour, minute, second, and timeZoneName. Properties whose corresponding internal slots have the value undefined are not assigned.

For web compatibility reasons, if the property hourCycle is set, the hour12 property should be set to true when hourCycle is "h11" or "h12", or to false when hourCycle is "h23" or "h24".

Note
In this version of the ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API, the timeZone property will be the name of the default time zone if no timeZone property was provided in the options object provided to the Intl.DateTimeFormat constructor. The first edition left the timeZone property undefined in this case.

12.5Properties of Intl.DateTimeFormat Instances

Intl.DateTimeFormat instances inherit properties from %DateTimeFormatPrototype%.

Intl.DateTimeFormat instances have an [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slot.

Intl.DateTimeFormat instances also have several internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

  • [[Locale]] is a String value with the language tag of the locale whose localization is used for formatting.
  • [[Calendar]] is a String value with the "type" given in Unicode Technical Standard 35 for the calendar used for formatting.
  • [[NumberingSystem]] is a String value with the "type" given in Unicode Technical Standard 35 for the numbering system used for formatting.
  • [[TimeZone]] is a String value with the IANA time zone name of the time zone used for formatting.
  • [[Weekday]], [[Era]], [[Year]], [[Month]], [[Day]], [[Hour]], [[Minute]], [[Second]], [[TimeZoneName]] are each either undefined, indicating that the component is not used for formatting, or one of the String values given in Table 4, indicating how the component should be presented in the formatted output.
  • [[HourCycle]] is a String value indicating whether the 12-hour format ("h11", "h12") or the 24-hour format ("h23", "h24") should be used. "h11" and "h23" start with hour 0 and go up to 11 and 23 respectively. "h12" and "h24" start with hour 1 and go up to 12 and 24. [[HourCycle]] is only used when [[Hour]] is not undefined.
  • [[Pattern]] is a String value as described in 12.3.3.

Finally, Intl.DateTimeFormat instances have a [[BoundFormat]] internal slot that caches the function returned by the format accessor (12.4.3).

13Locale Sensitive Functions of the ECMAScript Language Specification

The ECMAScript Language Specification, edition 9 or successor, describes several locale sensitive functions. An ECMAScript implementation that implements this Internationalization API Specification shall implement these functions as described here.

Note
The Collator, NumberFormat, or DateTimeFormat objects created in the algorithms in this clause are only used within these algorithms. They are never directly accessed by ECMAScript code and need not actually exist within an implementation.

13.1Properties of the String Prototype Object

13.1.1String.prototype.localeCompare ( that [ , locales [ , options ] ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2018, 21.1.3.10.

When the localeCompare method is called with argument that and optional arguments locales, and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let O be RequireObjectCoercible(this value).
  2. Let S be ? ToString(O).
  3. Let thatValue be ? ToString(that).
  4. Let collator be ? Construct(%Collator%, « locales, options »).
  5. Return CompareStrings(collator, S, thatValue).

The value of the length property of the localeCompare method is 1.

Note 1
The localeCompare method itself is not directly suitable as an argument to Array.prototype.sort because the latter requires a function of two arguments.
Note 2
The localeCompare function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its this value be a String object. Therefore, it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method.

13.1.2String.prototype.toLocaleLowerCase ( [ locales ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2018, 21.1.3.22.

This function interprets a string value as a sequence of code points, as described in ES2018, 6.1.4. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let O be RequireObjectCoercible(this value).
  2. Let S be ? ToString(O).
  3. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  4. If requestedLocales is not an empty List, then
    1. Let requestedLocale be requestedLocales[0].
  5. Else,
    1. Let requestedLocale be DefaultLocale().
  6. Let noExtensionsLocale be the String value that is requestedLocale with all Unicode locale extension sequences (6.2.1) removed.
  7. Let availableLocales be a List with the language tags of the languages for which the Unicode character database contains language sensitive case mappings.
  8. Let locale be BestAvailableLocale(availableLocales, noExtensionsLocale).
  9. If locale is undefined, let locale be "und".
  10. Let cpList be a List containing in order the code points of S as defined in ES2018, 6.1.4, starting at the first element of S.
  11. For each code point c in cpList, if the Unicode Character Database provides a lower case equivalent of c that is either language insensitive or for the language locale, replace c in cpList with that/those equivalent code point(s).
  12. Let cuList be a new empty List.
  13. For each code point c in cpList, in order, append to cuList the elements of the UTF-16 Encoding (defined in ES2018, 6.1.4) of c.
  14. Let L be a String whose elements are, in order, the elements of cuList.
  15. Return L.

The result must be derived according to the case mappings in the Unicode character database (this explicitly includes not only the UnicodeData.txt file, but also the SpecialCasings.txt file that accompanies it).

Note 1
As of Unicode 10.0, the availableLocales list contains the elements "az", "lt", and "tr".
Note 2
The case mapping of some code points may produce multiple code points. In this case the result String may not be the same length as the source String. Because both toLocaleUpperCase and toLocaleLowerCase have context-sensitive behaviour, the functions are not symmetrical. In other words, s.toLocaleUpperCase().toLocaleLowerCase() is not necessarily equal to s.toLocaleLowerCase().
Note 3
The toLocaleLowerCase function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its this value be a String object. Therefore, it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method.

13.1.3String.prototype.toLocaleUpperCase ( [ locales ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2018, 21.1.3.23.

This function interprets a string value as a sequence of code points, as described in ES2018, 6.1.4. This function behaves in exactly the same way as String.prototype.toLocaleLowerCase, except that characters are mapped to their uppercase equivalents as specified in the Unicode character database.

Note
The toLocaleUpperCase function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its this value be a String object. Therefore, it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method.

13.2Properties of the Number Prototype Object

The following definition(s) refer to the abstract operation thisNumberValue as defined in ES2018, 20.1.3.

13.2.1Number.prototype.toLocaleString ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2018, 20.1.3.4.

When the toLocaleString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let x be ? thisNumberValue(this value).
  2. Let numberFormat be ? Construct(%NumberFormat%, « locales, options »).
  3. Return FormatNumber(numberFormat, x).

13.3Properties of the Date Prototype Object

The following definition(s) refer to the abstract operation thisTimeValue as defined in ES2018, 20.3.4.

13.3.1Date.prototype.toLocaleString ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2018, 20.3.4.39.

When the toLocaleString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let x be ? thisTimeValue(this value).
  2. If x is NaN, return "Invalid Date".
  3. Let options be ? ToDateTimeOptions(options, "any", "all").
  4. Let dateFormat be ? Construct(%DateTimeFormat%, « locales, options »).
  5. Return FormatDateTime(dateFormat, x).

13.3.2Date.prototype.toLocaleDateString ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2018, 20.3.4.38.

When the toLocaleDateString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let x be ? thisTimeValue(this value).
  2. If x is NaN, return "Invalid Date".
  3. Let options be ? ToDateTimeOptions(options, "date", "date").
  4. Let dateFormat be ? Construct(%DateTimeFormat%, « locales, options »).
  5. Return FormatDateTime(dateFormat, x).

13.3.3Date.prototype.toLocaleTimeString ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2018, 20.3.4.40.

When the toLocaleTimeString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let x be ? thisTimeValue(this value).
  2. If x is NaN, return "Invalid Date".
  3. Let options be ? ToDateTimeOptions(options, "time", "time").
  4. Let timeFormat be ? Construct(%DateTimeFormat%, « locales, options »).
  5. Return FormatDateTime(timeFormat, x).

13.4Properties of the Array Prototype Object

13.4.1Array.prototype.toLocaleString ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2018, 22.1.3.27.

When the toLocaleString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let array be ? ToObject(this value).
  2. Let len be ? ToLength(? Get(array, "length")).
  3. Let separator be the String value for the list-separator String appropriate for the host environment's current locale (this is derived in an implementation-defined way).
  4. Let R be the empty String.
  5. Let k be 0.
  6. Repeat, while k < len
    1. If k > 0, then
      1. Set R to the string-concatenation of R and separator.
    2. Let nextElement be ? Get(array, ! ToString(k)).
    3. If nextElement is not undefined or null, then
      1. Let S be ? ToString(? Invoke(nextElement, "toLocaleString", « locales, options »)).
      2. Set R to the string-concatenation of R and S.
    4. Increase k by 1.
  7. Return R.
Note 1
This algorithm's steps mirror the steps taken in 22.1.3.27, with the exception that Invoke(nextElement, "toLocaleString") now takes locales and options as arguments.
Note 2
The elements of the array are converted to Strings using their toLocaleString methods, and these Strings are then concatenated, separated by occurrences of a separator String that has been derived in an implementationdefined locale-specific way. The result of calling this function is intended to be analogous to the result of toString, except that the result of this function is intended to be locale-specific.
Note 3
The toLocaleString function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its this value be an Array object. Therefore it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method.

AImplementation Dependent Behaviour

The following aspects of the ECMAScript 2018 Internationalization API Specification are implementation dependent:

  • In all functionality:
    • Additional values for some properties of options arguments (2)
    • Canonicalization of extension subtag sequences beyond the rules of RFC 5646 (6.2.3)
    • The default locale (6.2.4)
    • The default time zone (6.4.3)
    • The set of available locales for each constructor (9.1)
    • The BestFitMatcher algorithm (9.2.4)
    • The BestFitSupportedLocales algorithm (9.2.8)
  • In Collator:
    • Support for the Unicode extensions keys kn, kf and the parallel options properties numeric, caseFirst (10.1.1)
    • The set of supported "co" key values (collations) per locale beyond a default collation (10.2.3)
    • The set of supported "kn" key values (numeric collation) per locale (10.2.3)
    • The set of supported "kf" key values (case order) per locale (10.2.3)
    • The default search sensitivity per locale (10.2.3)
    • The sort order for each supported locale and options combination (10.3.4)
  • In NumberFormat:
    • The set of supported "nu" key values (numbering systems) per locale (11.3.3)
    • The patterns used for formatting positive and negative values as decimal, percent, or currency values per locale (11.1.7)
    • Localized representations of NaN and Infinity (11.1.7)
    • The implementation of numbering systems not listed in Table 3 (11.1.7)
    • Localized decimal and grouping separators (11.1.7)
    • Localized digit grouping schemata (11.1.7)
    • Localized currency symbols and names (11.1.7)
  • In DateTimeFormat:
    • The BestFitFormatMatcher algorithm (12.1.1)
    • The set of supported "ca" key values (calendars) per locale (12.3.3)
    • The set of supported "nu" key values (numbering systems) per locale (12.3.3)
    • The default hourCycle setting per locale (12.3.3)
    • The set of supported date-time formats per locale beyond a core set, including the representations used for each component and the associated patterns (12.3.3)
    • Localized weekday names, era names, month names, am/pm indicators, and time zone names (12.1.7)
    • The calendric calculations used for calendars other than "gregory", and adjustments for local time zones and daylight saving time (12.1.7)

BAdditions and Changes That Introduce Incompatibilities with Prior Editions

  • 10.1, 11.2, 12.2 In ECMA-402, 1st Edition, constructors could be used to create Intl objects from arbitrary objects. This is no longer possible in 2nd Edition.
  • 12.4.3 In ECMA-402, 1st Edition, the length property of the function object F was set to 0. In 2nd Edition, length is set to 1.

CColophon

This specification is authored on GitHub in a plaintext source format called Ecmarkup. Ecmarkup is an HTML and Markdown dialect that provides a framework and toolset for authoring ECMAScript specifications in plaintext and processing the specification into a full-featured HTML rendering that follows the editorial conventions for this document. Ecmarkup builds on and integrates a number of other formats and technologies including Grammarkdown for defining syntax and Ecmarkdown for authoring algorithm steps. PDF renderings of this specification are produced by printing the HTML rendering to a PDF.

Prior editions of this specification were authored using Word—the Ecmarkup source text that formed the basis of this edition was produced by converting the ECMAScript 2015 Word document to Ecmarkup using an automated conversion tool.

DCopyright & Software License

Ecma International

Rue du Rhone 114

CH-1204 Geneva

Tel: +41 22 849 6000

Fax: +41 22 849 6001

Web: http://www.ecma-international.org

Copyright Notice

© 2017 Ecma International

This draft document may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published, and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this section are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, including by removing the copyright notice or references to Ecma International, except as needed for the purpose of developing any document or deliverable produced by Ecma International.

This disclaimer is valid only prior to final version of this document. After approval all rights on the standard are reserved by Ecma International.

The limited permissions are granted through the standardization phase and will not be revoked by Ecma International or its successors or assigns during this time.

This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis and ECMA INTERNATIONAL DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY OWNERSHIP RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Software License

All Software contained in this document ("Software") is protected by copyright and is being made available under the "BSD License", included below. This Software may be subject to third party rights (rights from parties other than Ecma International), including patent rights, and no licenses under such third party rights are granted under this license even if the third party concerned is a member of Ecma International. SEE THE ECMA CODE OF CONDUCT IN PATENT MATTERS AVAILABLE AT http://www.ecma-international.org/memento/codeofconduct.htm FOR INFORMATION REGARDING THE LICENSING OF PATENT CLAIMS THAT ARE REQUIRED TO IMPLEMENT ECMA INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

  1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  3. Neither the name of the authors nor Ecma International may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE ECMA INTERNATIONAL "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL ECMA INTERNATIONAL BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.